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Understanding antibiotic use may help predict emergence of antimicrobial resistance. We evaluated antibiotic prescription trends in rural Burkina Faso, where little is known about antibiotic consumption. Antibiotic prescription data for 20 communities were extracted through record review in six primary health-care facilities serving the communities. The number of antibiotic prescriptions per child-year was calculated using population-based census data from the communities. A total of 1,444 antibiotic prescriptions were made from March to June 2017 among 3,401 children in the communities. The frequency of antibiotic prescription was 1.70 prescriptions per child-year (95% CI: 1.61–1.79). Penicillins were the most common (1.04 prescriptions per child-year, 95% CI: 1.01–1.06), followed by sulfonamides (0.69 prescriptions per child-year, 95% CI: 0.67–0.71) and macrolides (0.38 prescriptions per child-year, 95% CI: 0.37–0.40). Continued monitoring of antibiotic consumption in diverse settings will be important to understand the potential for emergence of antibiotic resistance.
Financial support: This work was supported in part by the Research to Prevent Blindness Career Development Award (to C. E. O. and T. D.) and the National Eye Institute of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number K08EY026986 (to T. D.). The funders did not play a role in study design, analysis, interpretation of results, or decision to publish.
Authors’ addresses: Ali Sié, Boubacar Coulibaly, Sawadogo Adama, Lucienne Ouermi, Clarisse Dah, and Charlemagne Tapsoba, Centre de Recherche en Santé de Nouna, Nouna, Burkina Faso, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Till Bärnighausen, Universitatsklinikum Heidelberg Institut fur Public Health, Heidelberg Institute of Public Health, Heidelberg, Germany, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. John Daniel Kelly, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, E-mail: email@example.com. Thuy Doan, Thomas M. Lietman, and Catherine E. Oldenburg, Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Jeremy D. Keenan, Francis I. Proctor Foundation, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, and Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, E-mail: email@example.com.