Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients at Eka Kotebe General Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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  • 1 College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;
  • | 2 East African Training Initiative, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;
  • | 3 Eka Kotebe Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;
  • | 4 Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York;
  • | 5 Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island;
  • | 6 Westchester Medical Center, New York Medical College, New York, New York

Data from much of Africa are still scarce on the clinical characteristics, outcomes of treatment, and factors associated with disease severity and mortality of COVID-19. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Eka Kotebe General Hospital, Ethiopia’s first COVID-19 treatment center. All consecutive symptomatic SARS CoV-2 RT-PCR positive individuals, aged 18 and older, admitted to the hospital between March 13 and September 16, 2020, were included. Of the total 463 cases, 319 (68.9%) were male. The median age was 45 years (interquartile range 32–62). The most common three symptoms were cough (69%), shortness of breath (SOB; 44%), and fatigue (37%). Hypertension was the most prevalent comorbidity, followed by diabetes mellitus. The age groups 40 to 59 and ≥ 60 were more likely to have severe disease compared with those < 40 years of age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.88–6.31 and aOR = 3.46, 95% CI: 1.91–6.90, respectively). Other factors associated with disease severity included the presence of any malignancy (aOR = 4.64, 95% CI: 1.32–16.33) and SOB (aOR = 3.83, 95% CI: 2.35–6.25). The age group ≥ 60 was significantly associated with greater in-hospital mortality compared with those < 40 years. In addition, the presence of any malignancy, SOB, and vomiting were associated with higher odds of mortality. In Ethiopia, most COVID-19 patients were male and presented with cough, SOB, and fatigue. Older age, any malignancy, and SOB were associated with disease severity; these factors, in addition to vomiting, also predicted mortality.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Dawit Kebede Huluka, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. E-mail: dndrda97@gmail.com

Financial support: This study was supported by the East African Training Initiative.

Authors’ addresses: Dawit Kebede Huluka, Sebrina Ahmed, Hiluf Abate, Nebiyu Getachew, Yohannes Feleke, Yonathan Abebe, Tewodros Haile, Hanan Yusuf, and Wondwossen Amogne, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, E-mails: dndrda97@gmail.com, amisub7575@gmail.com, hilufabate@gmail.com, neboneba@gmail.com, yohannesfeleke91@gmail.com, zidgich@gmail.com, drtewodroshaile@gmail.com, hananyusufahmed@gmail.com, and wonamogne@yahoo.com. Eyob Kebede Etissa, East African Training Initiative, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, E-mail: eyobke@gmail.com. Sisay Abera, Abebaw Bekele, Hiruy Araya, Tsegaye Gebreyes, Bethelehem Tadesse, Getachew Demoz, Yonas Gebreegziabher, Rediet Yitagesu, Addisu Berhanu, Eka Kotebe Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, E-mails: sisayabera21@gamil.com, abex4397@gmail.com, hiruya6@gmail.com, tsegayegebreyes@yahoo.com, bethlehem.tadesse.anteneh@gmail.com, getudm@gmail.com, yonasgebregziabher1@gmail.com, yitagesuredi@gmail.com, and addisbirae@gmail.com. Deborah A. Haisch, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, E-mail: dah2020@med.cornell.edu. Charles B. Sherman, Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI, E-mail: cbsherman@gmail.com. Neil W. Schluger, Westchester Medical Center, New York Medical College, New York, NY, E-mail: neil.schluger@wmchealth.org.

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