Case Report: Pulmonary Leptospirosis Misdiagnosed as COVID-19

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  • 1 Department of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique, Fort de France, France;
  • | 2 Bacteriology Laboratory, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique, Fort de France, France;
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Research, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique, Fort de France, France;
  • | 4 Intensive Care Unit, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique, Fort de France, France;
  • | 5 Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique, Fort de France, France

We report the case of an 83-year-old woman with acute, febrile respiratory failure resulting from interstitial pneumonia that required high-flow oxygen therapy. This clinical picture, associated with the ongoing epidemiological situation, initially guided us toward a diagnosis of COVID-19. Based on SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction negativity and the absence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, a search for a differential diagnosis was conducted that led us to conclude a diagnosis of severe pulmonary leptospirosis This case highlights the need to engage in early discussions about differential diagnoses, including neglected tropical and subtropical diseases, during the COVID-19 era.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Jean-Marie Turmel, Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique, CS 90632-97261 Fort de France Cedex, France. E-mail: jean-marie.turmel@chu-martinique.fr

Additional members of the COVID-19 study group of the University Hospital of Martinique include Sonia Abid, Ornella Cabras, Cyrille Chabartier, Agathe Chaplain, Georges Dos Santos, Laurence Fagour, Pauline Genieys, Emmanuelle Guerin, Diane Guilloux, Karine Guitteaud, François Javaugue, Jonas Jolivert, Cyrielle Le Nezet, Mélanie Lehoux, Athéna Marquise, Hossein Mehdaoui, Fatiha Najioullah, Karine Pailla, Diane Paris, Sandrine Pierre-François, Dabor Resiere, Marie Sabia, Michel Schloesser, Marie Soury, Rafaelle Theodose, Ruddy Valentino, Shazima Vally, and Laurent Wolf.

Authors’ addresses: Jean-Marie Turmel, Bastien Bigeard, Sylvie Abel, and André Cabié, Department of Tropical and Infectious Diseases, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique, Fort de France, France, E-mails: jean-marie.turmel@chu-martinique.fr, bastien.bigeard@chu-martinique.fr, sylvie.abel@chu-martinique.fr, and andre.cabie@chu.martinque.fr. Claude Olive, Bacteriology Laboratory, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique, Fort de France, France, E-mail: claude.olive@chu-martinique.fr. Rishika Banydeen, Department of Clinical Research, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique, Fort de France, France, E-mail: rishika.banydeen@chu-martinique.fr. Laura Daoud and Pierre-Marie Fayolle, Intensive Care Unit, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Martinique, Fort de France, France, E-mails: laura.daoud@chu-martinique.fr and pierre-marie.fayolle@chu-martinique.fr.

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