V. Evaluation of Cross-Immunity against Type 1 Dengue Fever in Human Subjects Convalescent from Subclinical Natural Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection and Vaccinated with 17D Strain Yellow Fever Vaccine
Afghanistan, a country challenged by war and conflicts, has been in a state of turmoil for several years. The prolonged suffering has brought many challenges to the country’s inhabitants. Among these, food security is one important cause for concern. Food security occurs when people continuously have physical and economic access to adequate, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary requirements and food preferences for a functional and healthy life. Amid the pandemic, Afghanistan has witnessed a large increase in food shortages due to its dependence on neighboring countries. In light of current circumstances, food insecurity, coupled with political instability and the third wave of the COVID-19, have made it extremely hard for people to access daily provisions. Hence, people are left to navigate the COVID-19 pandemic with economic recession and poverty as the backdrop of the other health crises. To mitigate food security, international attempts are the required at this critical juncture. The aim of this article is to understand the causes leading to food insecurity and its implications in Afghanistan and to propose solutions that will improve the overall food security at the policy and implementation levels.
Address correspondence to Mohammad Yasir Essar, Kabul University of Medical Sciences, Kabul, 1000, Afghanistan. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Authors’ addresses: Zarmina Islam, Dow University of Health Sciences, Medicine, Karachi, Pakistan, E-mail: email@example.com. Diana Mutasem Kokash, Dubai Health Authority, Medicine, Dubai, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Maryam Salma Babar, Dubai Medical College for Girls, Faculty of Medicine, Dubai, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, E-mail: email@example.com. Utkarsha Uday, West Bengal University of Health Sciences, Medicine, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Mohammad Mehedi Hasan, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Medicine, Tangail, Bangladesh, E-mail: email@example.com. Sudhan Rackimuthu, Father Muller Medical College, Department of Medicine, Mangalore, Karnataka, India, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Mohammad Yasir Essar and Arash Nemat, Kabul Medical University, Faculty of Stomatology, Kabul, Kabul, Afganistan, E-mails: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org.