V. Evaluation of Cross-Immunity against Type 1 Dengue Fever in Human Subjects Convalescent from Subclinical Natural Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection and Vaccinated with 17D Strain Yellow Fever Vaccine
In 2016, diarrheal disease was the eighth leading cause of mortality globally accounting for over 1.6 million deaths with the majority of deaths in adults and children over 5 years. This study aims to investigate the clinical, sociodemographic, and environmental risk factors associated with common bacterial acute diarrhea among adults and children over 5. Data were collected from March 2019 to March 2020 in patients over 5 years presenting with acute gastroenteritis at icddr,b. Stool samples were collected from each patient for culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Bivariate associations between independent variables and stool-testing indicating bacterial etiology were calculated. This analysis included 2,133 diarrheal patients of whom a bacterial enteropathogen was identified in 1,537 (72%). Detection of bacteria was associated with: younger age (OR 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88–0.96), lower mean arterial pressure (OR 0.84; 95% CI: 0.79–0.89), heart rate (OR 1.06; 95% CI: 1.01–1.10), percentage dehydration (OR 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13–1.55), respiration rate (OR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.04–1.46), lower mid-upper arm circumference (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94–0.99), confused/lethargic mental status (OR 1.85; 95% CI: 1.11–3.25), rice watery stool (OR 1.92; 95% CI: 1.54–2.41), and vomiting more than three times in the past 24 hours (OR 1.30; 95% CI: 1.06–1.58). Higher monthly income (OR 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86–0.98), > 8 years of education (OR 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63–1.00), and having more than five people living at home (OR 0.80; 95% CI: 0.66–0.98) were associated with lower odds of bacterial diarrhea. These findings may help guide the development of predictive tools to aid in identifying patients with bacterial diarrhea for timely and appropriate use of antibiotics.
Address correspondence to Sabiha Nasrin, Nutrition and Clinical Services Division, icddr,b, Dhaka, Bangladesh. E-mail: email@example.com
Financial support: Funding was provided through a grant received from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Institute for Diabetes and Diarrhoeal and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) (Federal Identifier: DK116163) (https://www.niddk.nih.gov/). The funders had no role in the study design, data collection, or reporting processes. TC is supported by Institutional Development Award Number U54GM115677 from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences of the National Institutes of Health, which funds Advance Clinical and Translational Research (Advance-CTR).