Risk Factors for Death Among 120,804 Hospitalized Patients with Confirmed COVID-19 in São Paulo, Brazil

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  • 1 Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Brazil;
  • 2 Pan American Health Organization, Brasília, Brazil;
  • 3 World Health Organization, Brasília, Brazil;
  • 4 University of Brasilia, Brasília, Brazil;
  • 5 Epidemiological Surveillance Center “Prof. Alexandre Vranjac” of the São Paulo State Department of Health, São Paulo, Brazil;
  • 6 Disease Control Coordination of the São Paulo State Department of Health, São Paulo, Brazil;
  • 7 Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Campo Grande, Brazil

São Paulo is a state in Brazil with one of the highest numbers of confirmed and severe cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), with an incidence of 294 hospitalizations per 100,000 inhabitants. We report the clinical characteristics and outcomes of 120,804 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 from February 26 to October 10, 2020, in São Paulo. Characteristics of patients who died and survived were compared using a survival analysis. The median age was 60 years (interquartile range [IQR], 47–72), 67,821 (56.1%) were men, and 61,659 (51.0%) were white. Most hospitalized patients (79,812; 66.1%) reported one or more comorbidities, 41,708 (34.5%) hospitalized patients were admitted to intensive care units, and 33,079 (27.4%) died. Men (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18–1.25), elderly individuals (HR, 3.85; 95% CI, 3.68–4.02), and patients with chronic cardiovascular disease including hypertension (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02–1.08), chronic lung disease (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.31–1.45), diabetes mellitus (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.11–1.18), and chronic neurological disease (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.41–1.55) were at higher risk for death from COVID-19.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Julio Croda, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Faculdade de Medicina – Prédio antigo, Av., Costa e Silva s/n, Universitário II, 79070-900, Campo Grande-MS, Brazil. E-mail: juliocroda@gmail.com

Authors’ addresses: Patricia Vieira da Silva, Daniel Henrique Tsuha, and Julio Croda, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil, E-mails: patriciavieira.s@hotmail.com, daniel.tsuha@saude.ms.gov.br, and juliocroda@gmail.com. Silvano Barbosa de Oliveira, Juan José Cortez Escalante, and Maria Almiron, Pan American Health Organization, World Health Organization, University of Brasilia, Brasília, DF, Brazil, E-mails: silbaroli@gmail.com, cortezj@paho.org, and almironm@paho.org. Helena Keico Sato, Epidemiological Surveillance Center “Prof. Alexandre Vranjac” of the São Paulo State Department of Health, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, E-mail: helenakeicosato@gmail.com. Paulo Rossi Menezes, Regiane Cardoso de Paula, and Tatiana Lang D’Agostini, Disease Control Coordination of the São Paulo State Department of Health, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, E-mails: paulo.menezes@saude.sp.gov.br, depaula.regiane7@gmail.com, and tlang@saude.sp.gov.br.

These authors contributed equally to this work.

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