Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is increasingly recognized in several regions of the globe. The present study was performed to identify and determine the frequency of B. pseudomallei infection in localized pyogenic lesions in eastern India and describe their clinico-microbiological profile. Pus samples were subjected to standard microbiological techniques for isolation and identification of various bacteria, including B. pseudomallei, which were confirmed by PCR. The clinical and demographic details of patients with melioidosis and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of B. pseudomallei isolates were analyzed. Of 245 samples, 126 (51.4%) were culture positive, yielding 137 isolates. Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant pathogen accounting for 54 (39.4%) isolates, followed by B. pseudomallei accounting for 34 (24.8%) isolates. The mean age of the patients with melioidosis was 39.1 years, with males (24/34; 70.6%) being affected more than females (10/34; 29.4%). A majority of the patients were laborers (12/34; 35.3), followed by homemakers (8/34; 23.5%). Head and neck abscesses (35.3%) were the most common presentation followed by pyogenic lesions of the musculoskeletal system (32.3%) and deep organ abscesses (23.5%). Clinical resolution of infection was observed in 31 (91.2%) patients, relapse in two (5.9%) patients, and death in one (2.9%) patient, respectively. Susceptibility testing revealed all B. pseudomallei isolates to be completely susceptible to the following antimicrobials: ceftazidime, trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, imipenem, and doxycycline, with one (2.9%) resistant to amoxicillin–clavulanic acid. Burkholderia pseudomallei is an emerging etiological agent of localized pyogenic infections in eastern India, affecting a mainly adult male population. An increased vigilance along with appropriate diagnostic techniques helps in accurate diagnosis facilitating appropriate therapy.
Address correspondence to Srujana Mohanty, Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar 751019, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Financial support: The study was partially funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) under MD thesis grant (reference no-3/2/March-2019/PG-Thesis-HRD).