Ivermectin Treatment for Cattle Reduced the Survival of Two Malaria Vectors, Anopheles dirus and Anopheles epiroticus, Under Laboratory Conditions in Central Vietnam

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  • 1 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts;
  • 2 Institute for Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology, Ministry of Health, Quy Nhon, Vietnam;
  • 3 U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit TWO, Singapore;
  • 4 Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore

Ivermectin is a low-cost and nontoxic mosquitocide that may have a role in malaria elimination. However, the extent to which this drug impacts the mortality of Anopheles dirus and Anopheles epiroticus, two important malaria vectors in Southeast Asia, is unknown. This study compared quantified anopheline mortality after feeding on ivermectin-treated cattle and control cattle in Vietnam. Local anopheles colonies fed on cattle 1 to 3, 6 to 8, 13 to 15, 20 to 22, and 28 to 30 days after injection (DAI) with ivermectin (intervention) or saline (control). An. dirus that fed on ivermectin-treated cattle had higher mortality rates than controls for up to 20 DAI (P < 0.05); An. epiroticus that fed on ivermectin-treated cattle had consistently higher mortality rates than controls for up to 8 DAI (P < 0.05). Feeding on ivermectin-treated cattle increased the mortality rate of these vector species for biologically relevant time periods. Therefore, ivermectin has the potential to become an important tool for integrated vector management.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Andrew A. Lover, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, 408 Arnold House, 715 North Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003. E-mail: alover@umass.edu

Financial support: This study was supported by the Defense Malaria Assistance Program with funds from the Defense Health Agency Research and Development Program (work unit number D1428).

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this publication are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. JCH is a military Service member. This work was prepared as part of his official duties. Title 17, U.S.C., §105 provides that copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the U.S. Government. Title 17, U.S.C., §101 defines a U.S. Government work as a work prepared by a military Service member or employee of the U.S. Government as part of that person’s official duties.

Authors’ addresses: Estee Y. Cramer and Andrew A. Lover, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, MA, E-mails: ecramer@umass.edu and alover@umass.edu. Nguyen Xuan Quang, Do Van Nguyen, and Huynh Hong Quang, Institute for Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology, Ministry of Health, Quy Nhon, Vietnam,, E-mails: xuanquang_98@yahoo.com, dovannguyen2007@gmail.com, and huynhquangimpe@yahoo.com. Jeffrey C. Hertz,, U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit TWO, Singapore, E-mail: dr.jeffhertz@gmail.com. Ian Mendenhall, Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, E-mail: ianhmendenhall@gmail.com.

These authors contributed equally to this work.

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