Mosquito Net Ownership, Utilization, and Preferences among Mobile and Migrant Populations Sleeping in Forests and Farms in Central Vietnam: A Cross-Sectional Study

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  • 1 Vysnova Partners, Inc., Landover, Maryland;
  • 2 National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology, Hanoi, Vietnam;
  • 3 U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit TWO, Singapore

Strengthening vector control measures among mobile and migrant populations (MMPs) is crucial to malaria elimination, particularly in areas with multidrug-resistant malaria. Although a global priority, providing access and ensuring high coverage of available tools such as long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) among these vulnerable groups remains a significant challenge. We assessed mosquito net ownership, utilization, and preference among individuals who slept in a forest and/or on a farm against those residing only in village “home” settings in a priority malaria elimination area of Vietnam. Proportions of respondents owning bed nets were similar among forest, farm, and home sleeping sites, ranging between 96% and 98%. The proportion of respondents owning hammock nets was higher for the forest group (92%), whereas ownership of hammocks in general was significantly lower for the home group (55%). Most respondents (97%) preferred to bring hammock nets to their remote sleeping site, whereas a smaller proportion (25%) also considered bed nets as an option. Respondent preferences included thick hammock nets with zippers (53%), hammocks with a flip cover (17%), and thin hammock nets with zippers (15%), with none choosing polyethylene (hard) LLINs. Although there is high coverage and access to nets for this high-priority MMP, there was a noted gap between coverage and net use, potentially undermining the effectiveness of net-related interventions that could impact malaria prevention and elimination efforts in Vietnam. The design and material of nets are important factors for user preferences that appear to drive net use.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Gerard C. Kelly, Vysnova Partners, Inc., 8400 Corporate Dr., Suite 130, Landover, MD 20875. E-mail:

Disclosure: All authors and institutes consent to publication. For K. A. E. and N. J. M.: I am a military Service member. This work was prepared as part of my official duties. Title 17, U.S.C., §105 provides that copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the U.S. government. Title 17, U.S.C., §101 defines a U.S. government work as a work prepared by a military Service member or employee of the U.S. government as part of that person’s official duties.

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, nor the U.S. government.

Financial support: This work was funded by the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Department of Defense Health Agency Research, Development, Technology, and Evaluation programs under work unit number D1423.

Authors’ addresses: Sara E. Canavati, Gerard C. Kelly, Thuan Huu Vo, and Long Khanh Tran, Vysnova Partners, Inc., Landover, MD, E-mails:,,, and Thang Duc Ngo and Duong Thanh Tran, National Institute of Malariology, Parasitology and Entomology, Hanoi, Vietnam, E-mails: and Kimberly A. Edgel and Nicholas J. Martin, U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit TWO, Singapore, E-mails: and