• 1.

    Galvão C, 2014. Vetores da doença de chagas no Brazil. Curitiba, Brazil: Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia, 289.

  • 2.

    Justi S, Galvão C, 2017. The evolutionary origin of diversity in Chagas disease vectors. Trends Parasitol 33: 4252.

  • 3.

    Rosa JA, Justino HHG, Nascimento JD, Mendonça VJ, Rocha CS, Carvalho DB, Falcone R, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, Alevi KCC, Oliveira J, 2017. A new species of Rhodnius from Brazil (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae). ZooKeys 675: 125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    World Health Organization, 2015. Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis). Wkly Epidemiol Rec 90: 3344.

  • 5.

    Justi SA, Galvão C, Schrago CG, 2016. Geological changes of the Americas and their influence on the diversification of the neotropical kissing bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0004527.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Payne F, 1909. Some new types of chromosome distribution and their relation to sex. Biol Bull 16: 119166.

  • 7.

    Schreiber G, Pellegrino J, 1950. Eteropicnosi di autosomi come possible meccanismo di speciazione. Sci Genet 3: 215226.

  • 8.

    Ueshima N, 1966. Cytotaxonomy of the Triatominae (Reduviidae, Hemiptera). Chromosoma 18: 97122.

  • 9.

    Alevi KCC, Moreira FFF, Jurberg J, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, 2016. Description of the diploid chromosome set of Triatoma pintodiasi (Hemiptera, Triatominae). Genet Mol Res 25: 15.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Bardella VB, Pita S, Vanzela ALL, Galvão C, Panzera F, 2016. Heterochromatin base pair composition and diversification in holocentric chromosomes of kissing bugs (Hemiptera, Reduviidae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 111: 111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Mendonça VJ, Alevi KCC, Pinotti H, Gurgel-Gongalves R, Pita S, Guerra AL, Panzera F, Araújo RF, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, Rosa JA, 2016. Revalidation of Triatoma bahiensis Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and phylogeny of the T. brasiliensis species complex. Zootaxa 4107: 239254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Otálora-Luna F, Pérez-Sánchez AJ, Sandoval C, Aldana E, 2015. Evolution of hematophagous habit in Triatominae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae). Rev Chil Hist Nat 88: 4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Nokkala S, Nokkala C, 1983. Achiasmatic male meiosis in two species of Saldula (Saldidae, Hemiptera). Hereditas 99: 131134.

  • 14.

    Souza ES, Alevi KCC, Ribeiro AR, Furtado MB, Atzinger NC, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, Rosa JA, 2015. First cytogenetic study of Cavernicola pilosa Barber, 1937 (Hemiptera, Triatominae). Genet Mol Res 14: 1388913893.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Schofield CJ, Galvão C, 2009. Classification, evolution, and species groups within the Triatominae. Acta Trop 110: 88100.

  • 16.

    Alevi KCC, Mendonça PP, Pereira NP, Rosa JA, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, 2012. Karyotype of Triatoma melanocephala Neiva and Pinto (1923). Does this species fit in the Brasiliensis subcomplex? Infect Genet Evol 12: 16521653.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Alevi KCC, Oliveira J, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, Rosa JA, 2017. Triatoma vitticeps subcomplex (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae): a new grouping of Chagas disease vectors from South America. Parasit Vectors 10: 180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Oliveira J, et al.., 2017. Combined phylogenetic and morphometric information to delimit and unify the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex and the Brasiliensis subcomplex. Acta Trop 170: 140148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Frías-Lasserre D, 2010. A new species and karyotype variation in the bordering distribution of Mepraia spinolai (Porter) and Mepraia gajardoi Frías et al. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in Chile and its parapatric model of speciation. Neotrop Entomol 39: 572583.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Gardim S, Almeida CE, Takiya DM, Oliveira J, Araújo RF, Cicarelli RMB, Rosa JA, 2014. Multiple mitochondrial genes of some sylvatic Brazilian Triatoma: non-monophyly of the T. brasiliensis subcomplex and the need for a generic revision in the Triatomini. Infect Genet Evol 23: 7479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Pérez R, et al.., 2002. Chromosomal evolution trends of the genus Panstrongylus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), vectors of Chagas disease. Infect Genet Evol 2: 4756.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Alevi KCC, Imperador CHL, Fonseca EOL, Santos CGS, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, Rosa JA, Oliveira J, 2018. Karyosystematic and karyotype evolution of Panstrongylus lutzi (Neiva & Pinto, 1923) (Hemiptera, Triatominae). Braz J Biol 78: 180182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Alevi KCC, Borsatto KC, Moreira FFF, Jurberg J, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, 2015. Karyosystematics of Triatoma rubrofasciata (De Geer, 1773) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). Zootaxa 3994: 433438.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Karyotype Evolution of Chagas Disease Vectors (Hemiptera, Triatominae)

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  • 1 Laboratório de Biologia Celular, Departamento de Biologia, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, IBILCE/UNESP. Rua Cristóvão Colombo, São José do Rio Preto, São Paul, Brazil;
  • | 2 Laboratório de Parasitologia, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, FCFAR/UNESP. Rodovia Araraquara-Jaú km 1, Araraquara, São Paul, Brazil

The Triatominae subfamily is composed of 153 hematophagous species that are potential vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. Karyotypic studies in triatomines were initiated in 1909. There are 92 karyotypes described, all grouped into the tribes Rhodniini and Triatomini. Recently, a phylogenetic study of the triatomines that combines molecular data with geological changes was performed. We now discuss how the karyotype evolved with the diversification of the triatomines.

The subfamily Triatominae consists of 153 hematophagous species (151 living species and two fossil ones) considered as potential vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909), the etiological agent of Chagas disease.13 Chagas disease is a neglected disease distributed in 21 countries in Latin America, and it is estimated that approximately 6 to 7 million people are infected worldwide.4

Currently, the subfamily Triatominae is divided into 18 genera and five tribes (Alberproseniini, Bolboderini, Cavernicolini, Rhodniini, and Triatomini),1 which are distributed from Southern United States of America to Patagonia, with a few species of Triatomini known from India and Australia. According to Justi et al.,5 the first three tribes (Alberproseniini, Bolboderini, and Cavernicolini) comprise only 15 of the 153 known species. Rhodniini and Triatomini are the most diverse and epidemiologically relevant tribes and therefore, have been the object of more research.1

Karyotypic studies in Triatominae were initiated in 1909 with the description of the karyotype of Triatoma sanguisuga (Leconte, 1855).6 In 1950, karyology was resumed, and new karyotypes were described.7 In 1966, Ueshima8 described 20 new karyotypes and proposed cytogenetic studies as a tool in the taxonomy of these vectors (cytotaxonomy). So far, 92 karyotypes have been described,3,911 all species being grouped into the tribes Rhodniini and Triatomini.

Recently, there was a proposal of a phylogenetic study of triatomines that combines molecular data with geological changes.5 The authors observed that most of the diversification events that occurred in the tribes Rhodniini and Triatomini are linked mainly to the climatic and geological changes caused by the Andean uplift in South America. Based on phylogenetic relationships presented by Justi et al.,5 we will discuss for the first time how the karyotype of triatomines evolved according to their diversification.

The subfamily Triatominae was recovered as monophyletic by Justi et al.5 For a long time, it was discussed if Triatominae was monophyletic, paraphyletic, or polyphyletic.12 Nokkala and Nokkala13 suggest that the primitive karyotype of the order Hemiptera is XY. Thus, based on the latest theory that triatomines originated from a common ancestor (monophyletic group)5 and that the main events of variation in their number of chromosomes are related to fission (agmatoploidy) and fusion (simploidy) of the X sex chromosome,9 we can confirm that all triatomines evolved from an ancestral karyotype 2n = 22 (20A + XY) (as initially suggested by Ueshima8).

The species of the tribes Alberproseniini, Bolboderini, and Cavernicolini do not have the described karyotype. However, as Cavernicolini was presented as a sister tribe to Rhodniini and all Rhodnius (15 of the 20 species) and Psammolestes (two of the three species) species analyzed have 2n = 22 (20A + XY),3,9 we suggest that all species of the tribes Rhodniini and Cavernicolini have 22 chromosomes. A recent cytogenetic study of Cavernicola pilosa (Barber, 1937) suggests that this species has an XY sex-determination system,14 supporting our hypothesis.

The most diverse genera within the tribes Rhodniini (Rhodnius) and Triatomini (Triatoma) have classically been divided into subgroups (groups, complexes, and subcomplexes) primarily based on morphology and geographical distribution.15 Among the different groups of Rhodnius (pallescens, pictipes, and prolixus), there was no observation of events that resulted in changes in the number of chromosomes of these vectors when compared with the ancestral karyotype 2n = 22.3,9 On the other hand, there are various events associated with the chromosomal evolution of Triatomini that are discussed next.

Justi et al.5 observed that the uplift of the western Cordillera acted as a vicariant event separating the clade venosa from the remaining Triatomini. The clade venosa, represented by the species of the complex dispar [Triatoma boliviana (Martinez et al., 2007), Triatoma carrioni (Larrousse, 1926), Triatoma dispar (Lent, 1950), Triatoma nigromaculata (Stål, 1872), and Triatoma venosa (Stål, 1872)],15 was the first to diverge from the tribe Triatomini. Recently, the karyotype 2n = 22 (20A + XY) was described for T. boliviana and T. carrioni,10 which may indicate that all species of this complex have 2n = 22 chromosomes and have not undergone agmatoploidy or simploidy during the divergence of the clade from the karyotype ancestor.

Subsequently, Justi et al.5 observed that the Northern Andean uplift separated Triatoma maculata (restricted to the Amazon) from the other members of the group infestans (an evolutionary event that has not caused changes in the number of chromosomes). Furthermore, the authors report that Triatoma melanocephala (Neiva and Pinto, 1923) and Triatoma vitticeps (Stål, 1859) (subcomplex vitticeps),17 although present in South America, are considered exceptions because they appear to have reached the Atlantic coast by dispersal and diversified before that event. Different from the species of the group infestans, which present 2n = 22 chromosomes,9,11 T. melanocephala and T. vitticeps have 2n = 24 (20A + X1X2X3Y).6,16 In the case of the subcomplex vitticeps, agmatoploidy resulted in a karyotype that makes it possible to distinguish these species from all the others in South America.17

The group infestans includes the subcomplexes brasiliensis, infestans, maculata, matogrossensis, rubrovaria, and sordida.15,18 Taking into account that many karyotypes of these subcomplexes have been described, all species analyzed have 2n = 22 (20A + XY),9,11 and different subcomplexes emerged from different selective pressures (brasiliensis in the Caatinga Province, rubrovaria in the Pampean Province, infestans in the Chacoan Province, and sordida, matogrossensis, and some species of the subcomplex maculata in the Cerrado Province),5,18 we suggest that all group infestans species have 2n = 22 chromosomes. Although the complex spinolai was long considered as a sister group to South American triatomines (being part of the group infestans),15 the recent study presented by Justi et al.5 demonstrated that the species of this complex are more closely related to the clades geniculatus and rubrofasciata.

The complex spinolai consists of the species Triatoma breyeri (Del Ponte, 1929), Triatoma eratyrusiformis (Del Ponte, 1929), Mepraia spinolai (Porter, 1934), Mepraia gajardoi (Frias, Henry & Gonzalez, 1998), and Mepraia parapatrica (Frías-Lasserre, 2010).15 Triatoma eratyrusiformis (and possibly T. breyeri by phylogenetic proximity)5 presents 2n = 24 (20A + X1X2X3Y)8 and Mepraia spp. present 2n = 23 (20A + X1X2Y).19 From the ancestral karyotype (2n = 22), the species of this complex that diverged in Mepraia have suffered one agmatoploidy event for the X sex chromosome (X1X2), and the species that diverged in Triatoma have suffered two events (X1X2X3). These results corroborate the phylogenetic relationship presented by Justi et al.5 because most species of the clades geniculatus and rubrofasciata have 23 (sex-determination system X1X2Y), 24 (sex-determination system X1X2X3Y), or exceptionally 25 chromosomes (sex-determination system X1X2Y).8,1719

Gardim et al.20 pointed out the need for a general revision in the tribe Triatomini because Panstrongylus cannot be clustered separately from Triatoma. For example, the clade geniculatus consists of Panstrongylus spp., flavida complex, and Triatoma tibiamaculata,5 and all studied species of this clade [except Panstrongylus megistus (Burmeister, 1835) and Panstrongylus lutzi (Neiva & Pinto, 1923)]21,22 presented 2n = 23 (20A + X1X2Y),9,21 which confirms the evolutionary relationship proposed. Based on the ancestral karyotype (2n = 22), we suggest that during the divergence of the common ancestor of the clade geniculatus an agmatoploidy in the X sex chromosome has happened, which resulted in karyotype 2n = 23 (karyotype shared by Panstrongylus spp., Nesotriatoma spp., and T. tibiamaculata). However, during the karyotypic evolution of Panstrongylus, two events occurred: simploidy in a pair of autosomes in P. megistus 2n = 21 (18A + X1X2Y)21 [a less common event, possibly related to a vicariant divergence between P. megistus and T. tibiamaculata (Pinto, 1926) from the separation of the common ancestor when the connection between the Amazon Rainforest and the Atlantic Forest was lost as a result of climatic changes caused by the Andean uplift]4 and agmatoploidy in the X sex chromosome in P. lutzi 2n = 24 (20A + X1X2X3Y).22

Justi et al.5 presented the group phyllosoma containing Triatoma mexicana (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1848), Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811), Triatoma recurva (Stål, 1868), Triatoma gerstaeckeri (Stål, 1858), Meccus pallidipennis (Stål, 1872), Meccus longipennis (Usinger, 1939), Meccus mazzottii (Usinger, 1941), and Meccus picturatus (Usinger, 1939) and suggested that Triatoma sanguisuga was separated from the other members by a vicariant event (high sea level that inundated Florida and the Gulf Coast). This group is basically a combination of species of the complexes lecticularia [Triatoma gerstaeckeri, Triatoma indictiva (Neiva, 1912), Triatoma lecticularia (Stål, 1859), Triatoma recurva, Triatoma rubida (Uhler, 1894), and Triatoma sanguisuga] and phyllosoma [Meccus bassolsae (Aguillar et al., 1999), Triatoma bolivari (Carcavallo, Martinez & Pelaez, 1987), Meccus. longipennis, Meccus mazzottii, Triatoma mexicana, Meccus pallidipennis, Meccus phyllosoma, Meccus picturata, and Triatoma ryckmani (Zeledón & Ponce, 1972)].15 With the exception of T. lecticularia (which was recovered as a sister species to Paratriatoma hirsuta (Barber, 1939), both having karyotype 2n = 22), all the species of the complexes lecticularia and phyllosoma that were cytogenetically studied have karyotype 2n = 23 (20A + X1X2Y).9 We suggest that this is the karyotype of all species of the group phyllosoma.

Considering that T. ryckmani and T. rubida present 2n = 23 and T. lecticularia and P. hirsuta 2n = 22, we can raise two hypotheses: i) the ancestor of these triatomines had 22 chromosomes, and during the divergence of T. ryckmani and T. rubida, an agmatoploidy of the X sex chromosome took place or ii) the common ancestor had 2n = 23, and during the divergence of T. lecticularia and P. hirsuta, a simploidy of the X sex chromosome occurred. However, as agmatoploidy is much more common in the subfamily Triatominae21 and simploidy is known only to autosomes,9 we understand that the first hypothesis is the most likely.

Finally, Justi et al.5 showed that the separation of the Old World clade [consisting of Triatoma rubrofasciata (De Geer, 1773) and Linshcosteus spp.], dates to a time as late as the Mid-Oligocene. Furthermore, the authors note that T. rubrofasciata and the species of the genus Linshcosteus [Linshcosteus carnifex (Distant, 1904), Linshcosteus chota (Lent & Wygodzyski, 1979), Linshcosteus confumus (Ghauri, 1976), Linshcosteus costalis (Ghauri, 1976), Linshcosteus kali (Lent & Wygodzyski, 1979), and Linshcosteus karupus (Galvão et al., 2002)] form a monophyletic group. Based on the peculiar karyotype 2n = 25 (22A + X1X2Y) of T. rubrofasciata (which presents an agmatoploidy in the autosomes, making it possible to differentiate it from all triatomine species)23 and the phylogenetic relationship presented between T. rubrofasciata and the species of genus Linshcosteus,5 we suggest that agmatoploidy has occurred in the common ancestor of the Old World clade, that is, we believe that all species of the genus Linshcosteus also have 25 chromosomes.

Therefore, based primarily on the evolutionary data presented by Justi et al.,5 we highlight new and important information (also in the form of hypotheses) on the evolution of the karyotype of triatomines that will guide new studies on these vectors of Chagas disease.

Acknowledgments:

This work was supported by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) (Process number 2013/19764-0) and the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq).

REFERENCES

  • 1.

    Galvão C, 2014. Vetores da doença de chagas no Brazil. Curitiba, Brazil: Sociedade Brasileira de Zoologia, 289.

  • 2.

    Justi S, Galvão C, 2017. The evolutionary origin of diversity in Chagas disease vectors. Trends Parasitol 33: 4252.

  • 3.

    Rosa JA, Justino HHG, Nascimento JD, Mendonça VJ, Rocha CS, Carvalho DB, Falcone R, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, Alevi KCC, Oliveira J, 2017. A new species of Rhodnius from Brazil (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae). ZooKeys 675: 125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    World Health Organization, 2015. Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis). Wkly Epidemiol Rec 90: 3344.

  • 5.

    Justi SA, Galvão C, Schrago CG, 2016. Geological changes of the Americas and their influence on the diversification of the neotropical kissing bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). PLoS Negl Trop Dis 10: e0004527.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Payne F, 1909. Some new types of chromosome distribution and their relation to sex. Biol Bull 16: 119166.

  • 7.

    Schreiber G, Pellegrino J, 1950. Eteropicnosi di autosomi come possible meccanismo di speciazione. Sci Genet 3: 215226.

  • 8.

    Ueshima N, 1966. Cytotaxonomy of the Triatominae (Reduviidae, Hemiptera). Chromosoma 18: 97122.

  • 9.

    Alevi KCC, Moreira FFF, Jurberg J, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, 2016. Description of the diploid chromosome set of Triatoma pintodiasi (Hemiptera, Triatominae). Genet Mol Res 25: 15.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Bardella VB, Pita S, Vanzela ALL, Galvão C, Panzera F, 2016. Heterochromatin base pair composition and diversification in holocentric chromosomes of kissing bugs (Hemiptera, Reduviidae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 111: 111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Mendonça VJ, Alevi KCC, Pinotti H, Gurgel-Gongalves R, Pita S, Guerra AL, Panzera F, Araújo RF, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, Rosa JA, 2016. Revalidation of Triatoma bahiensis Sherlock & Serafim, 1967 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) and phylogeny of the T. brasiliensis species complex. Zootaxa 4107: 239254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Otálora-Luna F, Pérez-Sánchez AJ, Sandoval C, Aldana E, 2015. Evolution of hematophagous habit in Triatominae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae). Rev Chil Hist Nat 88: 4.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Nokkala S, Nokkala C, 1983. Achiasmatic male meiosis in two species of Saldula (Saldidae, Hemiptera). Hereditas 99: 131134.

  • 14.

    Souza ES, Alevi KCC, Ribeiro AR, Furtado MB, Atzinger NC, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, Rosa JA, 2015. First cytogenetic study of Cavernicola pilosa Barber, 1937 (Hemiptera, Triatominae). Genet Mol Res 14: 1388913893.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Schofield CJ, Galvão C, 2009. Classification, evolution, and species groups within the Triatominae. Acta Trop 110: 88100.

  • 16.

    Alevi KCC, Mendonça PP, Pereira NP, Rosa JA, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, 2012. Karyotype of Triatoma melanocephala Neiva and Pinto (1923). Does this species fit in the Brasiliensis subcomplex? Infect Genet Evol 12: 16521653.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Alevi KCC, Oliveira J, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, Rosa JA, 2017. Triatoma vitticeps subcomplex (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae): a new grouping of Chagas disease vectors from South America. Parasit Vectors 10: 180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Oliveira J, et al.., 2017. Combined phylogenetic and morphometric information to delimit and unify the Triatoma brasiliensis species complex and the Brasiliensis subcomplex. Acta Trop 170: 140148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Frías-Lasserre D, 2010. A new species and karyotype variation in the bordering distribution of Mepraia spinolai (Porter) and Mepraia gajardoi Frías et al. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in Chile and its parapatric model of speciation. Neotrop Entomol 39: 572583.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Gardim S, Almeida CE, Takiya DM, Oliveira J, Araújo RF, Cicarelli RMB, Rosa JA, 2014. Multiple mitochondrial genes of some sylvatic Brazilian Triatoma: non-monophyly of the T. brasiliensis subcomplex and the need for a generic revision in the Triatomini. Infect Genet Evol 23: 7479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Pérez R, et al.., 2002. Chromosomal evolution trends of the genus Panstrongylus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae), vectors of Chagas disease. Infect Genet Evol 2: 4756.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Alevi KCC, Imperador CHL, Fonseca EOL, Santos CGS, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, Rosa JA, Oliveira J, 2018. Karyosystematic and karyotype evolution of Panstrongylus lutzi (Neiva & Pinto, 1923) (Hemiptera, Triatominae). Braz J Biol 78: 180182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Alevi KCC, Borsatto KC, Moreira FFF, Jurberg J, Azeredo-Oliveira MTV, 2015. Karyosystematics of Triatoma rubrofasciata (De Geer, 1773) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). Zootaxa 3994: 433438.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, IBILCE/UNESP, Rua Cristóvão Colombo, 2265, Jardim Nazareth, CEP 15054-000, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. E-mail: kaiochaboli@hotmail.com

Authors’ addresses: Kaio Cesar Chaboli Alevi and Maria Tercília Vilela de Azeredo- Oliveira, Departamento de Biologia, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Rua Cristóvão Colombo, 2265, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, E-mails: kaiochaboli@hotmail.com and tercilia@ibilce.unesp.br. Jader Oliveira and João Aristeu da Rosa, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Rod. Araraquara-Jaú, Km 1, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil, E-mails: jdr.oliveira@hotmail.com and joaoaristeu@gmail.com.

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