• View in gallery
    Figure 1.

    Magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed a large heterogeneous lesion and perilesional edema on the T1-weighted image (A) with rim enhancement (B) at pons.

  • View in gallery
    Figure 2.

    Hematoxylin and eosin–stained sections from paraffin blocks reveal many round-shape amoebae trophozoites with large karyosome and a halo-like appearance of the nucleus. This figure appears in color at www.ajtmh.org.

  • 1.

    Viriyavejakul P, Riganti M, 2009. Undiagnosed amebic brain abscess. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 40: 11831187.

  • 2.

    Aichelburg AC, Walochnik J, Assadian O, Prosch H, Steuer A, Perneczky G, Visvesvara GS, Aspöck H, Vetter N, 2008. Successful treatment of disseminated Acanthamoeba sp. infection with miltefosine. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 17431746.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Yagi S, Schuster FL, Visvesvara GS, 2008. Demonstration of Balamuthia and Acanthamoeba mitochondrial DNA in sectioned archival brain and other tissues by the polymerase chain reaction. Parasitol Res 102: 491497.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Intarapuk A, Kalambaheti T, Thammapalerd N, Mahannop P, Kaewsatien P, Bhumiratana A, Nityasuddhi D, 2009. Identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by PCR assay of fecal specimens obtained from Thai/Myanmar border region. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 40: 425434.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Marciano-Cabral F, MacLean R, Mensah A, LaPat-Polasko L, 2003. Identification of Naegleria fowleri in domestic water sources by nested PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 69: 58645869.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
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Acanthamoeba Brain Abscess Confirmed by Molecular Identification

Sakda Wara-AsawapatiDepartment of Pathology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand;

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Pewpan M. IntapanDepartment of Parasitology and Research and Diagnostic Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand;

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Verajit ChotmongkolFaculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand

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Clinical manifestations of infection of the brain caused by amoeba are divided into two types: primary amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri and focal brain lesion caused by Entamoeba histolytica, Acanthamoeba species, and Balamuthia mandrillaris. Early definite diagnosis and appropriate treatment are necessary for a good clinical outcome.1,2 A 58-year-old farmer woman, lived in rural area of the northeastern Thailand, presented with fever, alteration of consciousness, and progressive right hemiparesis for 10 days. She had a history of pulmonary tuberculosis and had undergone a complete course of treatment 2 years ago. Mixed connective tissue disease was also diagnosed 1 year ago due to history of Raynaud’s phenomenon, mild myositis, and positive high antinuclear antibody (ANA) titer (1:5,120); speckle type. She was treated with 10 mg of prednisolone for 2 months and then lost to follow-up. On physical examination, her body temperature was 38.2°C. She was in a state of stupor with right hemiparesis grade 0/5. No skin lesion was detected. Chest X-ray interpretation was normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a 2.6 × 3.3 cm heterogeneous enhancing lesion, with rim enhancement and perilesional edema at pons (Figure 1). Other smaller lesions were found at the right cerebellar hemisphere, right occipital lobe, and right superior frontal gyrus. Craniotomy of the right frontal lobe revealed necrotic tissue. An excisional biopsy was conducted. Microscopic examination of the brain tissue showed acute inflammatory cell infiltration and many round-shaped protozoa. Antibody titer for E. histolytica in the serum was 1:512. Stool examination did not reveal the presence of any parasites. Abdominal sonography revealed a normal liver. The patient was treated with intravenous metronidazole 500 mg every 6 hours without improvement and finally died of the severe brain lesion. Reevaluation of histopathologic study revealed rounded amebic trophozoite with large karyosome and a halo-like appearance to the nucleus. (Figure 2). Molecular identification using Acanthamoeba genus-specific primers was positive and a 180-bp amplified product was found.3 No amplified product was found when the extracted DNA was done with specific primers for E. histolytica, Naegleria, and Balamuthia.35 The present results suggested a possible diagnosis of Acanthamoeba brain abscess.

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Magnetic resonance imaging of brain showed a large heterogeneous lesion and perilesional edema on the T1-weighted image (A) with rim enhancement (B) at pons.

Citation: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 97, 2; 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0375

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Hematoxylin and eosin–stained sections from paraffin blocks reveal many round-shape amoebae trophozoites with large karyosome and a halo-like appearance of the nucleus. This figure appears in color at www.ajtmh.org.

Citation: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 97, 2; 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0375

REFERENCES

  • 1.

    Viriyavejakul P, Riganti M, 2009. Undiagnosed amebic brain abscess. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 40: 11831187.

  • 2.

    Aichelburg AC, Walochnik J, Assadian O, Prosch H, Steuer A, Perneczky G, Visvesvara GS, Aspöck H, Vetter N, 2008. Successful treatment of disseminated Acanthamoeba sp. infection with miltefosine. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 17431746.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Yagi S, Schuster FL, Visvesvara GS, 2008. Demonstration of Balamuthia and Acanthamoeba mitochondrial DNA in sectioned archival brain and other tissues by the polymerase chain reaction. Parasitol Res 102: 491497.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Intarapuk A, Kalambaheti T, Thammapalerd N, Mahannop P, Kaewsatien P, Bhumiratana A, Nityasuddhi D, 2009. Identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by PCR assay of fecal specimens obtained from Thai/Myanmar border region. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 40: 425434.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Marciano-Cabral F, MacLean R, Mensah A, LaPat-Polasko L, 2003. Identification of Naegleria fowleri in domestic water sources by nested PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 69: 58645869.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Verajit Chotmongkol, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand. E-mail: vercho@kku.ac.th

Authors’ addresses: Sakda Wara-Asawapati, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Parasitology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand, E-mail: sakdawa@kku.ac.th. Pewpan M. Intapan, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Parasitology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand, E-mail: pewpan@kku.ac.th. Verajit Chotmongkol, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand, E-mail: vercho@kku.ac.th.

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