• 1.

    Watt G, Parola P, 2003. Scrub typhus and tropical rickettsioses. Curr Opin Infect Dis 16: 429436.

  • 2.

    Koh GC, Maude RJ, Paris DH, Newton PN, Blacksell SD, 2010. Diagnosis of scrub typhus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 368370.

  • 3.

    Rajapakse S, Rodrigo C, Fernando D, 2012. Scrub typhus: pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and prognosis. Asian Pac J Trop Med 5: 261264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Peter JV, Sudarsan TI, Prakash JA, Varghese GM, 2015. Severe scrub typhus infection: clinical features, diagnostic challenges and management. World J Crit Care Med 4: 244250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Thap LC, Supanaranond W, Treeprasertsuk S, Kitvatanachai S, Chinprasatsak S, Phonrat B, 2002. Septic shock secondary to scrub typhus: characteristics and complications. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 33: 780786.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Wang CC, Liu SF, Liu JW, Chung YH, Su MC, Lin MC, 2007. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in scrub typhus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 11481152.

  • 7.

    Wu K-M, Wu Z-W, Peng G-Q, Wu JL, Lee S-Y, 2009. Radiologic pulmonary findings, clinical manifestations and serious complications in scrub typhus: experiences from a teaching hospital in eastern Taiwan. Int J Gerontol 3: 223232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Yen TH, Chang CT, Lin JL, Jiang JR, Lee KF, 2003. Scrub typhus: a frequently overlooked cause of acute renal failure. Ren Fail 25: 397410.

  • 9.

    Kim DM, Kang DW, Kim JO, Chung JH, Kim HL, Park CY, Lim SC, 2008. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis caused by direct invasion of Orientia tsutsugamushi. J Clin Microbiol 46: 15481550.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Kim DM, Chung JH, Yun NR, Kim SW, Lee JY, Han MA, Lee YB, 2013. Scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: 12061211.

  • 11.

    Sittiwangkul R, Pongprot Y, Silviliarat S, Oberdorfer P, Jittamala P, Sirisanthana V, 2008. Acute fulminant myocarditis in scrub typhus. Ann Trop Paediatr 28: 149154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Lee S, Kang KP, Kim W, Kang SK, Lee HB, Park SK, 2003. A case of acute renal failure, rhabdomyolysis and disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with scrub typhus. Clin Nephrol 60: 5961.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Kim DM, Kim SW, Choi SH, Yun NR, 2010. Clinical and laboratory findings associated with severe scrub typhus. BMC Infect Dis 10: 108.

  • 14.

    Kelly DJ, Fuerst PA, Ching WM, Richards AL, 2009. Scrub typhus: the geographic distribution of phenotypic and genotypic variants of Orientia tsutsugamushi. Clin Infect Dis 48 (Suppl 3): S203S230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Sonthayanon P, Chierakul W, Wuthiekanun V, Phimda K, Pukrittayakamee S, Day NP, Peacock SJ, 2009. Association of high Orientia tsutsugamushi DNA loads with disease of greater severity in adults with scrub typhus. J Clin Microbiol 47: 430434.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Lee CS, Hwang JH, Lee HB, Kwon KS, 2009. Risk factors leading to fatal outcome in scrub typhus patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 484488.

  • 17.

    Yasunaga H, Horiguchi H, Kuwabara K, Hashimoto H, Matsuda S, 2011. Delay in tetracycline treatment increases the risk of complications in Tsutsugamushi disease: data from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. Intern Med 50: 3742.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Watt G, Chouriyagune C, Ruangweerayud R, Watcharapichat P, Phulsuksombati D, Jongsakul K, Teja-Isavadharm P, Bhodhidatta D, Corcoran KD, Dasch GA, Strickman D, 1996. Scrub typhus infections poorly responsive to antibiotics in northern Thailand. Lancet 348: 8689.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Brown GW, Shirai A, Rogers C, Groves MG, 1983. Diagnostic criteria for scrub typhus: probability values for immunofluorescent antibody and Proteus OXK agglutinin titers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32: 11011107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Department of Disease Control MOPH, Thailand, 2001. Classification of Diseases Surveillance. Available at: www.boe.moph.go.th/publication/2544/cdsur/ANALYSIS.htm. Accessed March 1, 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Suputtamongkol Y, Suttinont C, Niwatayakul K, Hoontrakul S, Limpaiboon R, Chierakul W, Losuwanaluk K, Saisongkork W, 2009. Epidemiology and clinical aspects of rickettsioses in Thailand. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1166: 172179.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Jiang J, Chan TC, Temenak JJ, Dasch GA, Ching WM, Richards AL, 2004. Development of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay specific for Orientia tsutsugamushi. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 351356.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Bakshi D, Singhal P, Mahajan SK, Subramaniam P, Tuteja U, Batra HV, 2007. Development of a real-time PCR assay for the diagnosis of scrub typhus cases in India and evidence of the prevalence of new genotype of O. tsutsugamushi. Acta Trop 104: 6371.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Leelarasamee A, Chupaprawan C, Chenchittikul M, Udompanthurat S, 2004. Etiologies of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 87: 464472.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Suttinont C, Losuwanaluk K, Niwatayakul K, Hoontrakul S, Intaranongpai W, Silpasakorn S, Suwancharoen D, Panlar P, Saisongkorh W, Rolain JM, Raoult D, Suputtamongkol Y, 2006. Causes of acute, undifferentiated, febrile illness in rural Thailand: results of a prospective observational study. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 100: 363370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Department of Disease Control MOPH, Thailand, 2001. Scrub Typhus Surveillance. Available at: www.thaivbd.org. Accessed March 1, 2016.

  • 27.

    Blacksell SD, Bryant NJ, Paris DH, Doust JA, Sakoda Y, Day NP, 2007. Scrub typhus serologic testing with the indirect immunofluorescence method as a diagnostic gold standard: a lack of consensus leads to a lot of confusion. Clin Infect Dis 44: 391401.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Manosroi J, Chutipongvivate S, Auwanit W, Manosroi A, 2006. Determination and geographic distribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi serotypes in Thailand by nested polymerase chain reaction. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 55: 185190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Berman SJ, Kundin WD, 1973. Scrub typhus in south Vietnam. A study of 87 cases. Ann Intern Med 79: 2630.

  • 30.

    Johnson DE, Crum JW, Hanchalay S, Saengruchi C, 1982. Sero-epidemiological survey of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi infection in a rural Thai village. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 76: 13.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Takada N, Khamboonruang C, Yamaguchi T, Thitasut P, Vajrasthira S, 1984. Scrub typhus and chiggers in northern Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 15: 402406.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Eamsila C, Singsawat P, Duangvaraporn A, Strickman D, 1996. Antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi in Thai soldiers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55: 556559.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Chanyasanha C, Kaeburong K, Chenchittikul M, Sujirarat D, 1998. Seroprevalence of scrub typhus infection in patients with pyrexia at some malaria clinics in three western provinces of Thailand. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 16: 119125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Lim C, Blacksell SD, Laongnualpanich A, Kantipong P, Day NP, Paris DH, Limmathurotsakul D, 2015. Optimal cutoff titers for indirect immunofluorescence assay for diagnosis of scrub typhus. J Clin Microbiol 53: 36633666.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Saisongkorh W, Chenchittikul M, Silpapojakul K, 2004. Evaluation of nested PCR for the diagnosis of scrub typhus among patients with acute pyrexia of unknown origin. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98: 360366.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Paris DH, Blacksell SD, Newton PN, Day NP, 2008. Simple, rapid and sensitive detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi by loop-isothermal DNA amplification. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102: 12391246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Sirisanthana V, Puthanakit T, Sirisanthana T, 2003. Epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory features of scrub typhus in thirty Thai children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 22: 341345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Hamaguchi S, Cuong NC, Tra DT, Doan YH, Shimizu K, Tuan NQ, Yoshida LM, Mai LQ, Duc-Anh D, Ando S, Arikawa J, Parry CM, Ariyoshi K, Thuy PT, 2015. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of scrub typhus and murine typhus among hospitalized patients with acute undifferentiated fever in northern Vietnam. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92: 972978.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Kim DM, Won KJ, Park CY, Yu KD, Kim HS, Yang TY, Lee JH, Kim HK, Song HJ, Lee SH, Shin H, 2007. Distribution of eschars on the body of scrub typhus patients: a prospective study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 806809.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Watt G, Kantipong P, Jirajarus K, 2002. Acute scrub typhus in northern Thailand: EKG changes. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 33: 312313.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Choi YH, Kim SJ, Lee JY, Pai HJ, Lee KY, Lee YS, 2000. Scrub typhus: radiological and clinical findings. Clin Radiol 55: 140144.

  • 42.

    Varghese GM, Trowbridge P, Janardhanan J, Thomas K, Peter JV, Mathews P, Abraham OC, Kavitha ML, 2014. Clinical profile and improving mortality trend of scrub typhus in south India. Int J Infect Dis 23: 3943.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Premaratna R, Chandrasena TG, Dassayake AS, Loftis AD, Dasch GA, de Silva HJ, 2006. Acute hearing loss due to scrub typhus: a forgotten complication of a reemerging disease. Clin Infect Dis 42: e6e8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Rajapakse S, Rodrigo C, Fernando SD, 2011. Drug treatment of scrub typhus. Trop Doct 41: 14.

  • 45.

    Fang Y, Huang Z, Tu C, Zhang L, Ye D, Zhu BP, 2012. Meta-analysis of drug treatment for scrub typhus in Asia. Intern Med 51: 23132320.

  • 46.

    Jang MO, Kim JE, Kim UJ, Ahn JH, Kang SJ, Jang HC, Jung SI, Park KH, 2014. Differences in the clinical presentation and the frequency of complications between elderly and non-elderly scrub typhus patients. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 58: 196200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Sun IO, Kim MC, Park JW, Yang MA, Lee CB, Yoon HJ, Kim JG, Lee KY, 2014. Clinical characteristics of acute kidney injury in patients with scrub typhus: RIFLE criteria validation. J Infect Chemother 20: 9396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Young PC, Hae CC, Lee KH, Hoon CJ, 2003. Tsutsugamushi infection-associated acute rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Korean J Intern Med 18: 248250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Hu ML, Liu JW, Wu KL, Lu SN, Chiou SS, Kuo CH, Chuah SK, Wang JH, Hu TH, Chiu KW, Lee CM, Changchien CS, 2005. Short report: abnormal liver function in scrub typhus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 667668.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Kanno A, Yamada M, Murakami K, Torinuki W, 1996. Liver involvement in Tsutsugamushi disease. Tohoku J Exp Med 179: 213217.

 

 

 

 

Scrub Typhus in Northeastern Thailand: Eschar Distribution, Abnormal Electrocardiographic Findings, and Predictors of Fatal Outcome

View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Medicine, Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand.
  • 2 Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.
  • 3 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Scrub typhus is endemic in Thailand. Of the 495 patients with acute undifferentiated fever studied in Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand, from June 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012, 146 patients (29.5%) had confirmed scrub typhus. The majority of cases were male, farmers, with the mean (±standard deviation) age of 54.1 ± 15.2 years. A total of 59 patients (40.4%) had eschar lesion. The commonest sites for an eschar in male patients were the perineum, inguinal, and buttock area; whereas in females, it was the head and neck area. Abnormal electrocardiogram was found in 39 of 79 patients (49.4%) with sinus tachycardia being the most frequent finding (17, 21.5%). A total of 73 patients (50%) had at least one complication. Myocarditis was the cause of complete heart block in a scrub typhus patient, and he fully recovered after receiving intravenous chloramphenicol treatment. The case fatality rate was 6.2% (nine deaths).The independent predictors for fatal outcome were age over 65 years (odds ratio [OR] = 14.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26–166.44, P = 0.03), acute kidney injury (OR = 12.75, 95% CI = 1.77–92.07, P = 0.01), and hyperbilirubinemia (OR = 24.82, 95% CI = 2.12–286.61, P = 0.01). Early diagnosis and prompt appropriate treatment can improve the patient's outcome.

Introduction

Scrub typhus is a mite-borne rickettsial infection caused by the gram-negative intracellular bacteria, Orientia tsutsugamushi. The disease is prevalent in Asia and northern Australia.1,2 The disease spectrum can range from self-limiting acute febrile illness to fatal disease. Common signs and symptoms are fever, headache, muscle pain, lymphadenopathy, eschar, and rash.1 Presence of an eschar is a useful sign for diagnosing scrub typhus infection. Complications usually develop after the second week of illness, particularly in untreated cases, with systemic involvement3 and disseminated vasculitis,4 including septic shock,5 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS),6,7 pneumonitis,7 acute renal failure (ARF),8,9 meningitis or meningoencephalitis,10 myocarditis,11 disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC),12 upper gastrointestinal bleeding,13 and multiorgan dysfunctions (MODS).1,4 Myocarditis is a rare complication, few reports showed abnormal electrocardiographic (ECG) findings in scrub typhus patients. Serology is the mainstay for diagnosing scrub typhus.2 Patient outcome varies depending on pathogen factors (strain virulence14 and high bacterial load15), severity of the disease,16 time to diagnosis,17 commencement of appropriate treatment,3 and the presence of drug resistance.18 This study aims to demonstrate the clinical and laboratory manifestation, particularly eschar distribution and abnormal ECG findings, and the predictors of fatal outcome in scrub typhus patients.

Materials and Methods

Patients and study site.

This study is a subanalysis of a prospective etiological study of patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) admitted to the Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital (MNRH), a 1,300-bed tertiary-care hospital in northeastern Thailand, between June 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012. Nakhon Ratchasima is the largest province in Thailand, with an area about 20 million square kilometers and an estimated population of 2,600,000. Most of the population are agricultural workers and live in rural areas. Patients in this cohort were from rural areas throughout Nakhon Ratchasima Province.

Adult (≥ 18 years of age) patients with AUF (oral temperature ≥ 38.0°C, ≤ 14 days) who were diagnosed with scrub typhus were recruited in the analysis. Scrub typhus was confirmed based on one of these criteria: 1) a 4-fold increase in IgM or IgG antibody against pooled antigens of O. tsutsugamushi strain Karp, Kato, and Gilliam in paired sera (7–14 days apart) using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA),2 2) a single IFA with IgM or IgG antibody titer ≥ 1:400,1921 or 3) positive real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting 47-kDa genes and/or nested PCR targeting 56-kDa genes in O. tsutsugamushi using DNA extracted from patient's buffy coat.22,23 The screening dilution for IFA was 1:50, and positive samples on screening were further serially diluted (2-fold) from 1:50 to 1:6,400. Scrub typhus patients who had other coinfections were excluded from the analysis. The study was approved by the Ethical Review Subcommittee of MNRH, the Public Health Ministry of Thailand, and the Faculty of Medicine at Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants.

Statistical analysis.

Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS (Version 21.0, IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). χ2 test was used to compare the proportion of eschar lesion between males and females. Continuous variables were transformed into categorical variables using cutoff values based on clinical significance. Fisher's exact test and stepwise exact logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with fatal scrub typhus. All variables with P value < 0.05 in the univariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis. All tests were two sided; a P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

Of the 495 AUF patients who were enrolled, 146 patients (29.5%) had confirmed scrub typhus. The criteria diagnosis of scrub typhus is shown in Table 1. PCR was performed in 128 scrub typhus patients, whereas the other 18 patients had insufficient samples. The majority of scrub typhus patients were male (63.7%), farmers (71.2%), with the mean (±standard deviation) age of 54.1 ± 15.2 (range 18–97) years. The median duration of fever and duration of admission were 7 (range 3–14) and 3 (range 1–21) days, respectively. Most cases (57.7%) occurred in the rainy season (late May to mid-October). Signs and symptoms were fever (100%), headache (60.9%), and myalgia (65.8%). In all, 59 patients (40.4%) had eschar lesion and no patients presented with more than one eschar (Table 2). None of them underwent eschar biopsy for PCR.

Table 1

Criteria for diagnosis 146 scrub typhus patients*

Criteria diagnosis for scrub typhusPatients (%)
A 4-fold increase in antibody titer using IFA and positive PCR for Orientia tsutsugamushi60 (41.1)
A 4-fold increase in antibody titer using IFA38 (26.0)
A single antibody titer ≥ 1:400 using IFA and positive PCR for O. tsutsugamushi21 (14.4)
A single antibody titer ≥ 1:400 using IFA
 1:4003 (2.1)
 1:8002 (1.4)
 1:1,6002 (1.4)
 1:3,2005 (3.4)
 ≥ 1:6,4005 (3.4)
Positive PCR for O. tsutsugamushi despite nondiagnostic IFA10 (6.8)

IFA = indirect immunofluorescence assay; PCR = polymerase chain reaction.

PCR was performed in 128 scrub typhus patients, whereas the other 18 patients had insufficient samples.

Table 2

Distribution of eschar lesions in 59 scrub typhus patients*

Eschar locationsMale (%)Female (%)P value
Total36 (61)23 (39)0.60
Head and neck04 (17.4)0.02
Chest and abdomen (including axillar)9 (25.0)5 (21.7)0.06
Perineum, inguinal, and buttock16 (44.4)4 (17.4)0.048
Back4 (11.1)5 (21.7)0.29
Upper extremities1 (2.8)3 (13.1)0.29
Lower extremities6 (16.7)2 (8.7)0.46

No patients had more than one eschar lesion.

Abnormal laboratory findings, including acute kidney injury (AKI), chest radiograph, and ECG, are shown in Table 3. ECG of a 53-year-old male who presented with a 7-day history of fever and dyspnea demonstrated complete heart block. His cardiac enzyme was increased (creatine kinase-MB = 199.2 IU/L, troponin I = 28.2 ng/mL), whereas cardiac catheterization demonstrated normal coronary arteries. Myocarditis was identified as the cause of complete heart block in the patient with scrub typhus and his ECG returned to normal after 7 days of intravenous chloramphenicol. A total of 73 patients (50%) had at least one complication (Table 4). Four of 15 patients with ARF required renal replacement therapy and all of them recovered. Nine patients died, resulting in case fatality rate of 6.2% (Table 5). Autopsy was not performed in any of the fatal cases due to refusal by their relatives. Prognostic factors associated with fatal outcome are shown in Tables 6 and 7.

Table 3

Laboratory findings of scrub typhus cases

Laboratory findingsPatients (%)
AKI* (increase SCr > 1.5 times of normal level; N = 146)28 (19.2)
 Renal at risk (increase SCr × 1.5 times of normal level)6 (4.1)
 Renal injury (increase SCr × 2 times of normal level)7 (4.8)
 Acute renal failure (increase SCr × 3 times of normal level or if baseline SCr > 4 mg/dL and increase SCr > 0.5 mg/dL)15 (10.3)
Abnormal chest radiograph findings (N = 142 cases)62 (43.6)
 Bilateral interstitial infiltration36 (25.4)
 Bilateral patchy consolidation6 (4.2)
 Pulmonary edema6 (4.2)
 Localized infiltration4 (2.8)
 Unilateral pleural effusion2 (1.4)
 Cardiomegaly8 (5.6)
Abnormal ECG findings (N = 79 cases)39 (49.4)
 Sinus tachycardia17 (21.5)
 Atrial fibrillation (new onset)9 (11.3)
 Supraventricular tachycardia3 (3.8)
 Nonspecific ST-T change3 (3.8)
 Right bundle branch block3 (3.8)
 Left anterior fascicular block1 (1.3)
 Premature ventricular complex1 (1.3)
 First degree AV block1 (1.3)
 Complete heart block1 (1.3)

AV = atrioventricular; AKI = acute kidney injury; ECG = electrocardiographic; SCr = serum creatinine.

For patients with unknown baseline creatinine level, the modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation was used to estimate renal function based on age, sex, and race.

Table 4

Complications of 73 scrub typhus cases*

ComplicationsCases (%)
Septic shock27 (18.5)
Pulmonary involvement
 ARDS13 (8.9)
 Pneumonitis33 (22.6)
ARF15 (10.3)
Meningitis or meningoencephalitis5 (3.4)
Upper GI bleeding4 (2.7)
DIC3 (2.1)
Myocarditis1 (0.7)
Pericardial effusion1 (0.7)
MODS27 (18.5)

ARDS = acute respiratory distress syndrome; ARF = acute renal failure; DIC = disseminated intravascular coagulation; GI = gastrointestinal; MODS = multiorgan dysfunction.

Each patient can have more than one complication.

Table 5

Characteristic of nine fatal scrub typhus cases

 Age, /sexDOF, /LOSIFA titer: IgM/IgGPCR (copies)*ComplicationsAntibiotic treatment within first 24 hours after admission
173, F7, 66,400/800Positive (< 100)Septic shock, ARDS, ARFChloramphenicol, ceftriaxone
273, M7, 2100/800Positive (< 100)Septic shock, ARFChloramphenicol, ceftriaxone
387, M3, 8800/50NegativeSeptic shock, ARFCeftriaxone, levofloxacin
457, F5, 13,200/50NegativeSeptic shock, ARFCeftriaxone
541, M10, 41,600/3,200Positive (< 100)Septic shockCeftriaxone
687, F3, 5400/< 50NegativeSeptic shock, pericardial effusionOral doxycycline, ceftazidime, clarithromycin
783, F4, 2400/100NegativeARDSOral doxycycline, ceftazidime, clarithromycin
851, M3, 3< 50/< 50Positive (24,415)Pneumonitis, ARFChloramphenicol, ceftriaxone
967, M3, 171,600/100NegativePneumonitisOral doxycycline, ceftazidime, clarithromycin

ARDS = acute respiratory distress syndrome; ARF = acute renal failure; DOF = days of fever; F = female; IFA = indirect immunofluorescence assay; LOS = length of hospital stay; M = male.

Polymerase chain reaction result was demonstrated in copies number per 500 ng of human genomic DNA.

IFA titer expressed as the reciprocal of the dilution.

Table 6

Univariate analysis of prognostic factors for fatal outcome

FactorsDeath (N = 9)Survive (N = 137)P value
Age > 65 years6 (66.7)29 (21.2)0.01
Sex: male5 (55.6)88 (64.2)0.72
Cirrhosis2 (22.2)2 (1.5)0.02
Diabetes2 (22.2)6 (4.4)0.08
Abdominal pain2 (22.2)23 (16.8)0.65
Alteration of consciousness2 (22.2)7 (5.1)0.09
Hypotension6 (66.7)28 (20.4)0.005
Tachypnea (RR > 20 breaths/min)8 (88.9)67 (48.9)0.03
Tachycardia (HR > 100 beats/min)1 (11.1)15 (33.3)0.28
Absence of eschar9 (100)78 (56.9)0.01
Hepatomegaly1 (11.1)18 (13.1)1.00
ARDS2 (22.2)12 (8.8)0.15
Investigation
 Hemoglobin < 10 g/dL4 (44.4)21 (15.3)0.047
 White blood cell > 10,000 cell/mm37 (77.8)73 (53.3)0.18
 Lymphocyte < 1,500/mm36 (66.7)54 (39.4)0.16
 Platelet < 100,000/μL6 (66.7)37 (27)0.02
 AKI7 (77.8)21 (15.3)< 0.001
 Blood urea nitrogen > 20 mg/dL6 (66.7)38 (27.7)0.02
 Serum bicarbonate level < 20 mEq/L7 (77.8)30 (21.9)0.001
 Serum albumin < 3.0 g/dL6 (66.7)33 (24.1)0.01
 Total bilirubin > 3 mg/dL5 (55.6)12 (8.8)0.001
 ALT > 120 IU/L3 (33.3)43 (31.4)1.00
 AST > 120 IU/L7 (77.8)74 (54)0.29
 Bilateral lung infiltration in CXR4 (44.4)37 (27)0.27
 Not received proper ATB within 24 hours after admission3 (33.3)8 (5.8)0.02

AKI = acute kidney injury; ALT = alanine aminotransferase; ARDS = acute respiratory distress syndrome; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATB = antibiotic; CXR = chest X-ray; HR = heart rate; RR = respiratory rate.

Table 7

Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for fatal outcome

 P valueOdds ratio95% CI
Age ≥ 65 years0.0314.491.26–166.44
Creatinine > 1.5 times of normal level0.0112.751.77–92.07
Total bilirubin > 3 mg/dL0.0124.822.12–286.61

CI = confidence interval.

Discussion

Scrub typhus is a common cause of AUF in Thailand with varying incidence (4.6–23.4%) across geographic regions.24,25 The incidence of scrub typhus in MNRH (29.5%) during the study period was higher when compared with a previous study at the same institute in 2001–2002 (23.4%). This was in keeping with the report from the Ministry of Public Health of Thailand that the incidence of scrub typhus has been increasing over the past 10 years.26 Serology with a 4-fold increase in antibody titer in paired sera using IFA is the gold standard for diagnosis of scrub typhus.2,27 The IFA against combined Karp, Kato, and Gilliam strains of O. tsutsugamushi was performed in our study, and it covers the majority of the strains in Thailand.28 There is no consensus on the positive cutoff titer for a single acute serum sample.27 In addition, false-positive antibody test for scrub typhus at low titer has been reported in two patients with leptospirosis.29 In the present study, we used a positive single cutoff IgM/IgG titer ≥ 1:400, same as the surveillance criteria for scrub typhus, Thai Ministry of Public Health, 2001.20 The majority of antibody titers against O. tsutsugamushi in seroprevalence studies in healthy Thai rural villagers,30,31 Thai soldiers,32 and febrile illness patients33 were less than 1:400. The sensitivity and specificity of cutoff IgM titer of ≥ 1:400 in Thai patients were 81.0% and 94.1%, respectively.34 Lim and others suggested a single IgM cutoff titer of ≥ 1:3,200; however, the sensitivity was only 67.5% despite 100% specificity.34 Moreover, scrub typhus patients coinfected with other diseases were excluded from the analysis because of the difficulty in interpretation of the serology result, severity of disease, and patient's outcome. PCR method improves the diagnostic yield during the rickettsemia period when antibodies are not detectable.35 Likewise, 10 patients (6.8%) with nondiagnostic IFA were positive in PCR for scrub typhus. In this study, we performed PCR targeting 47- and 56-kDa genes in O. tsutsugamushi using DNA extracted from buffy coat because these two targets were highly specific for O. tsutsugamushi,2 and using buffy coat provided higher sensitivity of PCR when compared with whole blood.36

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of eschar distribution and abnormal ECG findings in scrub typhus patients in northeastern Thailand. The incidence of eschar lesion in our study (40.4%) was higher than the previous study in adult Thai patients (20.9%),21 but lower than studies in Thai children (68%)37 and other Asian countries.38,39 The commonest locations for eschar in males were the perineum, inguinal, and buttock areas, similar to the report from Korea39; whereas in females, the eschar predominantly occurred in the head and neck area, as opposed to the chest as described in the study by Kim and others.39 Eschar lesion is a pathognomonic sign of scrub typhus infection. In previous studies, the absence of an eschar was a predictor for severe13 and fatal scrub typhus.16 In our study, absence of eschar was predictive of death in univariate analysis, but did not reach statistical significance in multivariate analysis.

Abnormal ECG findings in the present study was more prevalent and more severe than the previous study.40 Watt and others reported that ECGs were mainly normal or only showed minor nonspecific changes, such as ST segment/T wave change, prominent U wave, and premature ventricular contraction.40 Myocarditis is a rare complication in scrub typhus patients.1 To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a complete heart block resulting from scrub typhus complicated with myocarditis. Pulmonary complication and bilateral interstitial opacity on chest radiograph were the most frequent findings in our study, consistent with the studies in Korea.13,41 The incidence rate of ARDS in this study was 8.9%, which was lower than previous studies.6,42 None of our patients had acute hearing loss, although it is a common presentation.43 The incidence of MODS (18.5%) was higher than the previous study in Thailand (11.9%).21

The case fatality rate in our study (6.3%) was higher than the previous study in Thailand between 2000 and 2003 (2.3%).21 Six of nine fatal cases (66.7%) developed severe disease within the first week of illness, in contrast with literature reporting that complications usually appear after the second week.3 Sonthayanon and others demonstrated positive correlation between disease severity and high O. tsutsugamushi DNA by performing PCR targeting on 16S ribosomal RNA gene of O. tsutsugamushi using DNA extracted from admission ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood samples,15 whereas in the present study, four fatal cases had positive PCR targeting on 47- and/or 56-kDa genes in O. tsutsugamushi using DNA extracted from buffy coat. Three of them had O. tsutsugamushi DNA less than 100 copies, whereas the other one had 24,415 copies per 500 ng of human genomic DNA. Antibiotic treatment of severe scrub typhus is doxycycline44 or chloramphenicol.1,45 However, only the oral formulation of doxycycline is available in Thailand. The use of oral doxycycline may not allow the achievement of therapeutic levels due to hemodynamic instability1 as seen in patient 6 (Table 5). Three fatal cases received inappropriate antibiotic treatment because of misdiagnosis. Treatment failure from doxycycline resistance was suspected in deceased cases who received doxycycline. In 1996, Watt and others reported doxycycline resistance in O. tsutsugamushi in northern Thailand18; however, in the present study, we did not perform scrub typhus culture and drug resistance testing. Therefore, further studies in patients' isolates in this region are needed to examine this question.

The significant predictors for fatal outcome in multivariate analysis were age over 65 years, AKI, and hyperbilirubinemia. Elderly people are vulnerable to infection due to impairment of both humoral and cell-mediated immunity and increased severity in some diseases, such as scrub typhus.46 Jang and others reported that scrub typhus patients over 65 years of age had higher morbidity and mortality compared with younger patients.47 Also, age over 65 years was an independent predictor of fatal outcome in their study; our result supported that finding. AKI is a consequence of multiple factors like hypotension, direct renal invasion by O. tsutsugamushi, vasculitis, or rhabdomyolysis.8,9,47,48 Half of patients with AKI were related to hypotension. AKI was a statistically significant predictor of mortality in our study and the study from India.42 Liver involvement; hypoalbuminemia; and elevated alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin levels have been described in scrub typhus patients.13,21,42,49 Elevated liver enzymes is the most frequent finding in a previous report50 and also in our study. Hyperbilirubinemia was an independent predictor of fatal outcome in our study, in accordance with a study from Varghese and others.42 The possible reason was patients' underlying liver diseases; all 17 patients with hyperbilirubinemia had history of liver conditions: liver cirrhosis (four cases), alcoholic liver disease (11 cases), and chronic hepatitis B (two cases).

There were several limitations in this study. First, lack of O. tsutsugamushi strains and scrub typhus isolates for drug resistance testing. Second, our hospital being a tertiary-care hospital, complications of scrub typhus cases may be overestimated. Third, this study was performed in a single hospital; therefore, it might not be a representative of the epidemiology of the whole of northeastern Thailand. In conclusion, scrub typhus is a major cause of AUF in Thailand, and early diagnosis and prompt accurate treatment can improve the outcome.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank the doctors and nurses in Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima hospital for participating, and the assistance of Suteeraporn Pinyakorn for statistical analysis. We thank Denise Hsu, Victor Sugiharto, Chien-Chung Chao, and Wei-Mei Ching for their advice.

  • 1.

    Watt G, Parola P, 2003. Scrub typhus and tropical rickettsioses. Curr Opin Infect Dis 16: 429436.

  • 2.

    Koh GC, Maude RJ, Paris DH, Newton PN, Blacksell SD, 2010. Diagnosis of scrub typhus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 368370.

  • 3.

    Rajapakse S, Rodrigo C, Fernando D, 2012. Scrub typhus: pathophysiology, clinical manifestations and prognosis. Asian Pac J Trop Med 5: 261264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Peter JV, Sudarsan TI, Prakash JA, Varghese GM, 2015. Severe scrub typhus infection: clinical features, diagnostic challenges and management. World J Crit Care Med 4: 244250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Thap LC, Supanaranond W, Treeprasertsuk S, Kitvatanachai S, Chinprasatsak S, Phonrat B, 2002. Septic shock secondary to scrub typhus: characteristics and complications. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 33: 780786.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Wang CC, Liu SF, Liu JW, Chung YH, Su MC, Lin MC, 2007. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in scrub typhus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 11481152.

  • 7.

    Wu K-M, Wu Z-W, Peng G-Q, Wu JL, Lee S-Y, 2009. Radiologic pulmonary findings, clinical manifestations and serious complications in scrub typhus: experiences from a teaching hospital in eastern Taiwan. Int J Gerontol 3: 223232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Yen TH, Chang CT, Lin JL, Jiang JR, Lee KF, 2003. Scrub typhus: a frequently overlooked cause of acute renal failure. Ren Fail 25: 397410.

  • 9.

    Kim DM, Kang DW, Kim JO, Chung JH, Kim HL, Park CY, Lim SC, 2008. Acute renal failure due to acute tubular necrosis caused by direct invasion of Orientia tsutsugamushi. J Clin Microbiol 46: 15481550.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Kim DM, Chung JH, Yun NR, Kim SW, Lee JY, Han MA, Lee YB, 2013. Scrub typhus meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: 12061211.

  • 11.

    Sittiwangkul R, Pongprot Y, Silviliarat S, Oberdorfer P, Jittamala P, Sirisanthana V, 2008. Acute fulminant myocarditis in scrub typhus. Ann Trop Paediatr 28: 149154.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Lee S, Kang KP, Kim W, Kang SK, Lee HB, Park SK, 2003. A case of acute renal failure, rhabdomyolysis and disseminated intravascular coagulation associated with scrub typhus. Clin Nephrol 60: 5961.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Kim DM, Kim SW, Choi SH, Yun NR, 2010. Clinical and laboratory findings associated with severe scrub typhus. BMC Infect Dis 10: 108.

  • 14.

    Kelly DJ, Fuerst PA, Ching WM, Richards AL, 2009. Scrub typhus: the geographic distribution of phenotypic and genotypic variants of Orientia tsutsugamushi. Clin Infect Dis 48 (Suppl 3): S203S230.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Sonthayanon P, Chierakul W, Wuthiekanun V, Phimda K, Pukrittayakamee S, Day NP, Peacock SJ, 2009. Association of high Orientia tsutsugamushi DNA loads with disease of greater severity in adults with scrub typhus. J Clin Microbiol 47: 430434.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Lee CS, Hwang JH, Lee HB, Kwon KS, 2009. Risk factors leading to fatal outcome in scrub typhus patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 484488.

  • 17.

    Yasunaga H, Horiguchi H, Kuwabara K, Hashimoto H, Matsuda S, 2011. Delay in tetracycline treatment increases the risk of complications in Tsutsugamushi disease: data from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination database. Intern Med 50: 3742.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Watt G, Chouriyagune C, Ruangweerayud R, Watcharapichat P, Phulsuksombati D, Jongsakul K, Teja-Isavadharm P, Bhodhidatta D, Corcoran KD, Dasch GA, Strickman D, 1996. Scrub typhus infections poorly responsive to antibiotics in northern Thailand. Lancet 348: 8689.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Brown GW, Shirai A, Rogers C, Groves MG, 1983. Diagnostic criteria for scrub typhus: probability values for immunofluorescent antibody and Proteus OXK agglutinin titers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32: 11011107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Department of Disease Control MOPH, Thailand, 2001. Classification of Diseases Surveillance. Available at: www.boe.moph.go.th/publication/2544/cdsur/ANALYSIS.htm. Accessed March 1, 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Suputtamongkol Y, Suttinont C, Niwatayakul K, Hoontrakul S, Limpaiboon R, Chierakul W, Losuwanaluk K, Saisongkork W, 2009. Epidemiology and clinical aspects of rickettsioses in Thailand. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1166: 172179.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Jiang J, Chan TC, Temenak JJ, Dasch GA, Ching WM, Richards AL, 2004. Development of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay specific for Orientia tsutsugamushi. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 351356.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Bakshi D, Singhal P, Mahajan SK, Subramaniam P, Tuteja U, Batra HV, 2007. Development of a real-time PCR assay for the diagnosis of scrub typhus cases in India and evidence of the prevalence of new genotype of O. tsutsugamushi. Acta Trop 104: 6371.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Leelarasamee A, Chupaprawan C, Chenchittikul M, Udompanthurat S, 2004. Etiologies of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 87: 464472.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Suttinont C, Losuwanaluk K, Niwatayakul K, Hoontrakul S, Intaranongpai W, Silpasakorn S, Suwancharoen D, Panlar P, Saisongkorh W, Rolain JM, Raoult D, Suputtamongkol Y, 2006. Causes of acute, undifferentiated, febrile illness in rural Thailand: results of a prospective observational study. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 100: 363370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Department of Disease Control MOPH, Thailand, 2001. Scrub Typhus Surveillance. Available at: www.thaivbd.org. Accessed March 1, 2016.

  • 27.

    Blacksell SD, Bryant NJ, Paris DH, Doust JA, Sakoda Y, Day NP, 2007. Scrub typhus serologic testing with the indirect immunofluorescence method as a diagnostic gold standard: a lack of consensus leads to a lot of confusion. Clin Infect Dis 44: 391401.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Manosroi J, Chutipongvivate S, Auwanit W, Manosroi A, 2006. Determination and geographic distribution of Orientia tsutsugamushi serotypes in Thailand by nested polymerase chain reaction. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 55: 185190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Berman SJ, Kundin WD, 1973. Scrub typhus in south Vietnam. A study of 87 cases. Ann Intern Med 79: 2630.

  • 30.

    Johnson DE, Crum JW, Hanchalay S, Saengruchi C, 1982. Sero-epidemiological survey of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi infection in a rural Thai village. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 76: 13.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Takada N, Khamboonruang C, Yamaguchi T, Thitasut P, Vajrasthira S, 1984. Scrub typhus and chiggers in northern Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 15: 402406.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Eamsila C, Singsawat P, Duangvaraporn A, Strickman D, 1996. Antibodies to Orientia tsutsugamushi in Thai soldiers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55: 556559.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Chanyasanha C, Kaeburong K, Chenchittikul M, Sujirarat D, 1998. Seroprevalence of scrub typhus infection in patients with pyrexia at some malaria clinics in three western provinces of Thailand. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 16: 119125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Lim C, Blacksell SD, Laongnualpanich A, Kantipong P, Day NP, Paris DH, Limmathurotsakul D, 2015. Optimal cutoff titers for indirect immunofluorescence assay for diagnosis of scrub typhus. J Clin Microbiol 53: 36633666.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Saisongkorh W, Chenchittikul M, Silpapojakul K, 2004. Evaluation of nested PCR for the diagnosis of scrub typhus among patients with acute pyrexia of unknown origin. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98: 360366.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Paris DH, Blacksell SD, Newton PN, Day NP, 2008. Simple, rapid and sensitive detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi by loop-isothermal DNA amplification. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102: 12391246.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Sirisanthana V, Puthanakit T, Sirisanthana T, 2003. Epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory features of scrub typhus in thirty Thai children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 22: 341345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Hamaguchi S, Cuong NC, Tra DT, Doan YH, Shimizu K, Tuan NQ, Yoshida LM, Mai LQ, Duc-Anh D, Ando S, Arikawa J, Parry CM, Ariyoshi K, Thuy PT, 2015. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of scrub typhus and murine typhus among hospitalized patients with acute undifferentiated fever in northern Vietnam. Am J Trop Med Hyg 92: 972978.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Kim DM, Won KJ, Park CY, Yu KD, Kim HS, Yang TY, Lee JH, Kim HK, Song HJ, Lee SH, Shin H, 2007. Distribution of eschars on the body of scrub typhus patients: a prospective study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 806809.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Watt G, Kantipong P, Jirajarus K, 2002. Acute scrub typhus in northern Thailand: EKG changes. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 33: 312313.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Choi YH, Kim SJ, Lee JY, Pai HJ, Lee KY, Lee YS, 2000. Scrub typhus: radiological and clinical findings. Clin Radiol 55: 140144.

  • 42.

    Varghese GM, Trowbridge P, Janardhanan J, Thomas K, Peter JV, Mathews P, Abraham OC, Kavitha ML, 2014. Clinical profile and improving mortality trend of scrub typhus in south India. Int J Infect Dis 23: 3943.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Premaratna R, Chandrasena TG, Dassayake AS, Loftis AD, Dasch GA, de Silva HJ, 2006. Acute hearing loss due to scrub typhus: a forgotten complication of a reemerging disease. Clin Infect Dis 42: e6e8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Rajapakse S, Rodrigo C, Fernando SD, 2011. Drug treatment of scrub typhus. Trop Doct 41: 14.

  • 45.

    Fang Y, Huang Z, Tu C, Zhang L, Ye D, Zhu BP, 2012. Meta-analysis of drug treatment for scrub typhus in Asia. Intern Med 51: 23132320.

  • 46.

    Jang MO, Kim JE, Kim UJ, Ahn JH, Kang SJ, Jang HC, Jung SI, Park KH, 2014. Differences in the clinical presentation and the frequency of complications between elderly and non-elderly scrub typhus patients. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 58: 196200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Sun IO, Kim MC, Park JW, Yang MA, Lee CB, Yoon HJ, Kim JG, Lee KY, 2014. Clinical characteristics of acute kidney injury in patients with scrub typhus: RIFLE criteria validation. J Infect Chemother 20: 9396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Young PC, Hae CC, Lee KH, Hoon CJ, 2003. Tsutsugamushi infection-associated acute rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Korean J Intern Med 18: 248250.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Hu ML, Liu JW, Wu KL, Lu SN, Chiou SS, Kuo CH, Chuah SK, Wang JH, Hu TH, Chiu KW, Lee CM, Changchien CS, 2005. Short report: abnormal liver function in scrub typhus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 667668.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Kanno A, Yamada M, Murakami K, Torinuki W, 1996. Liver involvement in Tsutsugamushi disease. Tohoku J Exp Med 179: 213217.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Wilawan Thipmontree, Department of Medicine, Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, 49 Changpuek Road, Amphur Muang, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand. E-mail: wthipmontree@gmail.com

Financial support: This study was funded by the National Research Council of Thailand, grant no. R015410001.

Authors' addresses: Wilawan Thipmontree, Department of Medicine, Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand, E-mail: wthipmontree@gmail.com. Wiwit Tantibhedhyangkul, Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, E-mail: wiwit167@yahoo.com. Saowaluck Silpasakorn, Ekkarat Wongsawat, Duangdo Waywa, and Yupin Supputtamonkol, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand, E-mails: saowaluck_8@yahoo.com, dave_bio4@hotmail.com, krapom@yahoo.com, and ysuputtamongkol@gmail.com.

Save