Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV) is a mosquito-borne orthobunyavirus that causes an acute febrile illness, meningitis, or meningoencephalitis.1–5 Although JCV is widely distributed throughout temperate North America, reports of human JCV infection in the United States are rare.1 JCV was first isolated in 1961 from a pool of Culiseta inornata mosquitoes in Jamestown Canyon, CO.6 Since then, the virus has been isolated from various mosquito species (e.g., Aedes, Coquillettidia, Culex, and Culiseta species) in the northeastern, midwestern, and western United States.6–19 JCV neutralizing antibodies have been found in various mammals throughout mainland North America,13,20–36 and identified in humans throughout the United States.1–5,34,37–41
JCV is a member of the California serogroup viruses, which include La Crosse virus (LACV), California encephalitis virus, and snowshoe hare virus.42 Although the presence of anti-JCV immunoglobulin (Ig) M detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is usually evidence of a recent JCV infection, it also may indicate infection with another closely related California serogroup virus.35,42,43 Plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs) can be performed to measure virus-specific neutralizing antibodies and to potentially discriminate among cross-reacting antibodies from closely related California serogroup viruses.44,45
Prior to 2014, testing for JCV infection in the United States was performed at the Arboviral Diseases Branch of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and at the Wadsworth Laboratory of the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH). Since 2000, NYSDOH has been able to perform JCV PRNTs on acute and convalescent samples testing positive for California serogroup IgG antibodies by immunofluorescence assay. At the CDC, PRNTs have been used to detect JCV neutralizing antibodies since 1995. All samples testing positive or equivocal for LACV IgM antibodies by ELISA at the CDC have JCV PRNTs performed. A JCV IgM ELISA was developed at the CDC in 2010. Beginning in 2013, all samples submitted to the CDC for domestic arbovirus testing were routinely tested for JCV IgM antibodies by ELISA, and if positive, were confirmed by JCV PRNTs. We describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of laboratory-confirmed cases of JCV disease occurring in the United States during 2000–2013.
We thank Olga Kosoy, Robert Lanciotti, Jennifer Lehman, Roger Nasci, and Amanda Panella from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Jeffrey Davis and Linda Machmueller from the Wisconsin Department of Health Services; Deborah Upperman, Louise Boettcher-Troxel, and David Warshauer from the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene; Robert Boromisa, Amy Dean, Valerie Demarest, Kay Escuyer, Laura Kramer, Karen Kulas, Norma Tavakoli, Kirsten St. George, Arboviral Laboratory staff, Viral Encephalitis Laboratory staff, and other staff within the Wadsworth Center and New York State Department of Health; David Neitzel at the Minnesota Department of Health; Sheryl Hand at the Mississippi State Department of Health; and Randall Nelson at the Connecticut Department of Health. We also thank other local health department staff, clinicians, and commercial laboratories involved in testing and reporting cases.
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