Tim K. Mackey was supported for this research through the Partnership for Safe Medicines 2011–2013 Carl L. Alsberg MD Fellowship and greatly acknowledges this support. We thank the support of International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations and the Pharmaceutical Security Institute for this study, and comments and insights from a preliminary presentation by Dr. Liang of this material at the PSI Meeting at Europol, April 25, 2013, Den Hague, The Netherlands. We also thank Raphael Cuomo, research associate with the Global Health Policy Institute, for his help in preparing the manuscript.
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Counterfeit Incident reports in CIS did not include normalized data on the level of supply chain penetration where counterfeit medicines were detected. However, we note based on the limited data available that detection often occurred with pharmacies, distributors/wholesalers, hospitals, and warehouses.
The 16 therapeutic categories listed are the standard categories reported and collected by the CIS and are explained in further detail in Table 1. However, there may be certain subcategories of the standard therapeutic classes that warrant further study including drugs that treat psychological conditions (included in “Central Nervous System” category) and antimalarials that have been widely detected as counterfeited (included in the “Anti-Infective” and also certain treatments in the “Parasitic” category).