• View in gallery

    Fever clearance time: a survival analysis Kaplan Meier curve for fever clearance time in patients who received Atovaquone-proguanil (black curve) or Artemether-Lumefantrine (grey curve) for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

  • 1.

    Schwartz E, 2009. Malaria in travelers: epidemiology, clinical aspects and treatment. Schwartz E, ed. Tropical Diseases in Travelers. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Leder K, Black J, O'Brien D, Greenwood Z, Kain KC, Schwartz E, Brown G, Torresi J, 2004. Malaria in travelers: a review of the GeoSentinel surveillance network. Clin Infect Dis 39: 11041112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Noedl H, Se Y, Sriwichai S, Schaecher K, Teja-Isavadharm P, Smith B, Rutvisuttinunt W, Bethell D, Surasri S, Fukuda MM, Socheat D, Chan Thap L, 2010. Artemisinin resistance in Cambodia: a clinical trial designed to address an emerging problem in Southeast Asia. Clin Infect Dis 51: e82e89.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Sutherland CJ, Laundy M, Price N, Burke M, Fivelman QL, Pasvol G, Klein JL, Chiodini PL, 2008. Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum cytochrome b gene are associated with delayed parasite recrudescence in malaria patients treated with atovaquone-proguanil. Malar J 7: 240.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Wurtz N, Pascual A, Marin-Jauffre A, Bouchiba H, Benoit N, Desbordes M, Martelloni M, Pommier de Santi V, Richa G, Taudon N, Pradines B, Briolant S, 2012. Early treatment failure during treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with atovaquone-proguanil in the Republic of Ivory Coast. Malar J 11: 146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Perry TL, Pandey P, Grant JM, Kain KC, 2009. Severe atovaquone-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a Canadian traveler returned from the Indian subcontinent. Open Med 3: e10e16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Hitani A, Nakamura T, Ohtomo H, Nawa Y, Kimura M, 2006. Efficacy and safety of atovaquone-proguanil compared with mefloquine in the treatment of nonimmune patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Japan. J Infect Chemother 12: 277282.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Bouchaud O, Monlun E, Muanza K, Fontanet A, Scott T, Goetschel A, Chulay JD, Le Bras J, Danis M, Le Bras M, Coulaud JP, Gentilini M, 2000. Atovaquone plus proguanil versus halofantrine for the treatment of imported acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in non-immune adults: a randomized comparative trial. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63: 274279.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Fivelman QL, Butcher GA, Adagu IS, Warhurst DC, Pasvol G, 2002. Malarone treatment failure and in vitro confirmation of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum isolate from Lagos, Nigeria. Malar J 1: 1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Wichmann O, Muehlberger N, Jelinek T, Alifrangis M, Peyerl-Hoffmann G, Muhlen M, Grobusch MP, Gascon J, Matteelli A, Laferl H, Bisoffi Z, Ehrhardt S, Cuadros J, Hatz C, Gjorup I, McWhinney P, Beran J, da Cunha S, Schulze M, Kollaritsch H, Kern P, Fry G, Richter J, 2004. Screening for mutations related to atovaquone/proguanil resistance in treatment failures and other imported isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in Europe. J Infect Dis 190: 15411546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Dondorp AM, Fanello CI, Hendriksen IC, Gomes E, Seni A, Chhaganlal KD, Bojang K, Olaosebikan R, Anunobi N, Maitland K, Kivaya E, Agbenyega T, Nguah SB, Evans J, Gesase S, Kahabuka C, Mtove G, Nadjm B, Deen J, Mwanga-Amumpaire J, Nansumba M, Karema C, Umulisa N, Uwimana A, Mokuolu OA, Adedoyin OT, Johnson WB, Tshefu AK, Onyamboko MA, Sakulthaew T, Ngum WP, Silamut K, Stepniewska K, Woodrow CJ, Bethell D, Wills B, Oneko M, Peto TE, von Seidlein L, Day NP, White NJ, 2010. Artesunate versus quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria in African children (AQUAMAT): an open-label, randomized trial. Lancet 376: 16471657.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    WHO, 2010. Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria. Second edition. Available at: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/9789241547925/en/. Accessed July 18, 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Mizuno Y, Kato Y, Kudo K, Kano S, 2009. First case of treatment failure of artemether-lumefantrine in a Japanese traveler with imported falciparum malaria. Jpn J Infect Dis 62: 139141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Farnert A, Ursing J, Tolfvenstam T, Rono J, Karlsson L, Sparrelid E, Lindegardh N, 2012. Artemether-lumefantrine treatment failure despite adequate lumefantrine day 7 concentration in a traveler with Plasmodium falciparum malaria after returning from Tanzania. Malar J 11: 176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Denis MB, Tsuyuoka R, Lim P, Lindegardh N, Yi P, Top SN, Socheat D, Fandeur T, Annerberg A, Christophel EM, Ringwald P, 2006. Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in northwest Cambodia. Trop Med Int Health 11: 18001807.

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    Hatz C, Soto J, Nothdurft HD, Zoller T, Weitzel T, Loutan L, Bricaire F, Gay F, Burchard GD, Andriano K, Lefevre G, De Palacios PI, Genton B, 2008. Treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria with artemether-lumefantrine in nonimmune populations: a safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 241247.

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  • 17.

    Neuberger A, Zaulan O, Tenenboim S, Vernet S, Pex R, Held K, Urman M, Garpenfeldt K, Schwartz E, 2011. Malaria among patients and aid workers consulting a primary healthcare centre in Leogane, Haiti, November 2010 to February 2011 — a prospective observational study. Euro Surveill 16: pii=19829. Available at: http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19829.

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  • 18.

    van Agtmael M, Bouchaud O, Malvy D, Delmont J, Danis M, Barette S, Gras C, Bernard J, Touze JE, Gathmann I, Mull R, 1999. The comparative efficacy and tolerability of CGP 56697 (artemether + lumefantrine) versus halofantrine in the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in travelers returning from the Tropics to The Netherlands and France. Int J Antimicrob Agents 12: 159169.

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  • 19.

    Bouchaud O, Muhlberger N, Parola P, Calleri G, Matteelli A, Peyerl-Hoffmann G, Mechai F, Gautret P, Clerinx J, Kremsner PG, Jelinek T, Kaiser A, Beltrame A, Schmid ML, Kern P, Probst M, Bartoloni A, Weinke T, Grobusch MP, 2012. Therapy of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Europe: MALTHER - a prospective observational multicentre study. Malar J 11: 212.

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  • 20.

    Schwartz E, Bujanover S, Kain KC, 2003. Genetic confirmation of atovaquone-proguanil-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria acquired by a nonimmune traveler to East Africa. Clin Infect Dis 37: 450451.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Artemether-Lumefantrine Compared to Atovaquone-Proguanil as a Treatment for Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Travelers

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  • The Center of Geographic Medicine and Tropical Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel; The Infectious Diseases Unit, Shaare-Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel; The Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel

Atovaquone-proguanil (AP) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) are both treatments for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, but comparative clinical trials are lacking. We performed a retrospective analysis, comparing treatment failure and fever clearance time in non-immune travelers with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, treated with AP or AL. Sixty-nine patients were included during 2001–2013: 44 in the AP group and 25 in the AL group. Treatment failure was observed in 6 of 44 (13.6%) and 1 of 25 (4.0%) patients in the AP and AL groups, respectively. Six treatment failures were observed in travelers from West Africa. Fever clearance time was 44 ± 23 h in AL group versus 77 ± 28 h in AP group, (P < 0.001). Hospitalization time was significantly shorter in the AL group; 3.8 + 1.3 versus 5.1 + 2.8 days in the AP group (P = 0.04) In conclusion, travelers with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria recover faster on AL than on AP. The AL should probably be the drug of choice for this population.

Introduction

Malaria is the most common cause of hospitalization as a result of a febrile disease in returning travelers,1 with around 30,000 malaria cases reported in travelers annually.2 Travelers from non-endemic origin have no immunity to the disease and therefore the mortality rates are even higher compared with the endemic population.1

Plasmodium falciparum is the major cause of severe malaria and its treatment is complicated by the emergence of resistant strains. Several treatment options are available for P. falciparum malaria in developed countries.3 For uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria these include quinine plus doxycycline/clindamycin, high-dose mefloquine, or the two newer drug-combinations: atovaquone-proguanil (AP) and artemether-lumfantrine (AL). The AP and AL are probably the best current options as they are both considered to be safe and effective, have a short course of oral treatment (3 days), few adverse effects, and only a few reports on emergence of resistance.36

The AP has been shown to be safe and effective for uncomplicated malaria in returning travelers, and was found to be superior to mefloquine and halofantrine (a drug not commonly used in developed countries any more).7,8 However, in recent years there have been reports of treatment failure with both clinical and laboratory resistance shown.9,10

Artemisinin derivatives are considered to be the fastest and most potent current malaria treatment.11 In 2006 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) such as AL to be the regimen of choice for treating P. falciparum malaria in Africa,12 because of its relatively low cost and high efficiency. To date, few treatment failures have been reported.1315 A recent study evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of a standard 6 doses course of AL in non-immune patients and found a 96% cure rate.16

The relative efficacy of AP and AL has not been evaluated in head-to-head clinical trials. The aim of this study was to compare, for the first time, the treatment outcome of uncomplicated malaria in non-immune travelers, treated with either AP or AL.

Methods

The study design was a retrospective cohort analysis. We reviewed medical records of malaria patients who were hospitalized at the Sheba Medical Center between the years 2001, the year AP was first administrated, and until 2013. The following data were extracted from patients' medical records: demographic data, laboratory characteristics, fever clearance time (hours), treatment outcome, and hospitalization time (days).

The study was approved by the Ethical committee of Sheba Medical Center.

Inclusion criteria.

The patient population included adult (18 years of age and older) non-immune Israeli travelers, who returned from malaria-endemic countries, were hospitalized with P. falciparum malaria, and were treated by either AL or AP as a single drug.

Exclusion criteria.

Tourists, immigrants, and foreign workers from malaria-endemic countries, and patients who did not receive their treatment in Israel were excluded from the study.

Treatment regimen.

Patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria (as per WHO criteria12) received oral treatment. All antimalarial treatment was given as inpatient observed therapy. The treatment decision was based on drug availability: between the years 2001 and 2009 all the patients were treated with AP as the drug of choice. Between the years 2009 and 2013 all the patients were treated with AL, unless it was not available, and then they received AP (AL is still not licensed in Israel and was delivered to our hospital under special institutional review board).

Drug protocol.

The AP (Malarone [GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, United Kingdom]), a fixed combination tab of 250 mg atovaquone and 100 mg proguanil)—4 tabs orally once daily for a total of 3 days. The AL (Coartem, [Novartis Pharma Ltd., Basel, Switzerland], a fixed combination tab of artemether 20 mg and lumefantrine 120 mg), 4 tabs orally at 0 and 8 hours, and then twice daily for a total of six doses.

Patients were evaluated 4 weeks after hospital discharge, to ensure absence of recrudescence. Patients with recurrent fever were asked to return to the hospital for reevaluation.

Clinical and epidemiological data, including age, sex, place of birth, place of infection, laboratory results, and the time between fever onset and treatment onset (days) were recorded and compared between the two groups. Primary outcomes included fever clearance time (hours)—the time between treatment initiation and defervescence below 37.5°C and treatment failure. Treatment failure was defined as deterioration to severe malaria, or failure to clear parasitemia after 3 days of treatment (early failure), or recrudescence of fever and parasitemia within 1 month of presentation (late failure). Patients that failed their initial treatment were not included in the fever clearance time calculations.

A secondary outcome was hospitalization time.

Statistical analysis.

Patient data were extracted from medical records and analyzed with SPSS 19.0 (IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY) statistical software. Patients were divided into two groups based on treatment type: AP and AL. Continuous variables distribution, such as fever clearance time, was assessed for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (cutoff at P < 0.01). Continuous variables with normal distribution were described as mean ± SD and compared with the t test for independent samples. Non-normal distribution continuous variables were described as median and compared with the Mann-Whitney U test. Categorical variables such as treatment failure (yes/no) were compared by treatment exposure using the Fisher test.

Results

During the study period of 2001–2013, 69 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study: 44 in the AP group and 25 in the AL. Age (mean ± SD) was 43 ± 14 years, and there was a remarkable male predominance (93%).

Clinical and epidemiological characteristics, and complete blood count and blood chemistry tests did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups (Table 1). Time from fever onset and treatment initiation was 4.6 ± 7.7 (mean ± SD) days in the AP group and 3.1 ± 1.9 (mean ± SD) days in the AL group, a difference that was not statistically significant. Most malaria cases in both groups were imported from Africa, especially from West Africa (Table 1).

Table 1

Patient characteristics according to treatment regimen

 Total (N = 69)Artemether-lumefantrine (N = 25)Atovaquone-proguanil (N = 44)P value
Age (years, mean ± SD)43.0 ± 14.145.0 ± 14.741.0 ± 13.80.26*
Male gender (%)93%92%95%1
Time from fever onset to treatment (days, mean ± SD)4.0 ± 6.4 (N = 63)3.1 ± 1.9 (N = 24)4.6 ± 7.7 (N = 39)0.36*
Country of acquisition   1.00
Africa65 (94%)24 (96%)41 (93%) 
West Africa47 (68%)18 (72%)29 (66%) 
East Africa17 (25%)6 (24%)11 (25%) 
Asia4 (6%)1 (4%)3 (7%) 
India3 (4%)1 (4%)2 (5%) 
Thailand1 (1%)0 (0%)1 (2%)
Laboratory results on admission
WBC5.63 (±2.1)5.6 (±2.1)5.7 (±2.0)0.95*
NEUT%71.9 (±13.1)73.5 (±13.1)70.9 (±13.4)0.44*
HGB13.9 (±1.8)14.1 (±1.6)13.8 (±1.8)0.44*
PLT122.1 (±75.5)122.6 (±70.8)121.8 (±79.0)0.97*
Cr1.2 (±0.3)1.2 (±0.3)1.1 (±0.2)0.03*
SGPT (ALT)51.6 (±47.6)51.4 (±55.4)51.8 (±42.4)0.97*
SGOT (AST)50 (±47.32)51.1 (±52)49.2 (±44.9)0.87*
LDH350.3 (±187.8)389.9 (±259.4)325.6 (±121.8)0.18*
Total Bilirubin1.5 (±1.2)1.3 (±0.6)1.64 (±1.4)0.26*

t test for equality of means.

Fisher test.

WBC = white blood count; NEUT% = neutrophil percentage; HGB = hemoglobin; PLT = platelets; Cr = serum creatinine; SGPT = serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase; SGOT = serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase; LDH = serum lactate dehydrogenase.

Six (13.64%) cases of treatment failure were recorded in the AP group, and one (4%) in the AL group (P = 0.41). In the AP group, three patients failed to clear their fever and blood parasites, despite a full dose of AP treatment. Three more had cleared their fever, but had a recrudescence within 1 month of discharge. Of the six AP failure cases, one patient was treated with AL, two received mefloquine, and two quinine + doxycycline. The sixth patient progressed to severe malaria despite AP treatment, and the treatment was changed to intravenous treatment. All six patients recovered completely. In the AL group the one case of treatment failure was diagnosed with recrudescence 2.5 weeks after fever clearance. This patient had inadvertently received only five doses of AL. He subsequently received AP treatment, cleared his fever within 48 hours, and recovered uneventfully.

All treatment failure cases had returned from Africa, six from West Africa, and one from East Africa (AP group). The treatment failure rate in West Africa was 17% in AP group (5 of 30) and 4.5% in AL (1 of 22) (Table 2).

Table 2

Outcome parameters according to treatment allocation

 Artemether-lumefantrineAtovaquone-proguanilP value
Fever clearance time(N = 23*)(N = 38*)< 0.001
Mean (±SD) (hours)44 (±22.7)77 (±28)
Median (hours)4872
Treatment's failure(N = 25)(N = 44)0.41
Number16
Percentage4%13.64%
Hospitalization time(N = 23)(N = 37)0.04
Average (days)3.8 (±1.3)5.14 (±2.8)
Median (days)46

Seven patients (6 in AP group and 1 in AL group) had failed to clear their fever and therefore had no fever clearance time. One patient in AL group was afebrile at admission, and therefore was excluded from fever clearance time calculation.

t test for Equality of Means.

Fisher test.

Fever clearance time was 44 ± 22.7 (mean ± SD) hours in the AL group and 77.0 ± 28.0 (mean ± SD) hours in the AP group (P < 0.001) (Table 2). A Kaplan Meier survival analysis also showed that fever clearance time was significantly faster in the AL group (log-rank P < 0.001) (Figure 1).

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Fever clearance time: a survival analysis Kaplan Meier curve for fever clearance time in patients who received Atovaquone-proguanil (black curve) or Artemether-Lumefantrine (grey curve) for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Citation: The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 92, 1; 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0249

In seven cases from the AP group data regarding complete defervescence time were missing. In these cases we used the minimum follow-up time as a surrogate of fever clearance time and further examined worst case scenario sensitivity analysis and calculated the fever clearance time difference without these seven patients. By all methods of calculation the AP group had a statistically significant longer fever clearance time.

Hospitalization time was significantly shorter in the AL group: 5.1 ± 2.8 (mean ± SD) versus 3.8 ± 1.3 (mean ± SD) days in the AP group (P value = 0.04) (Table 2).

Discussion

Malaria is the most common cause of fever and hospitalization in returned travelers from Africa.1 Four approved regimens are available in developed countries for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria: atovaquone-proguanil (AP), artemether-lumfantrine (AL), quinine + doxycycline/clindamycin, high-dose mefloquine (chloroquine use is restricted to very few areas where chloroquine sensitivity is maintained).17 Of these four regimens AP and AL have the advantages of a short course of therapy, good tolerability, and few side effects, proven efficacy and as yet rare resistance. The AP was patented by Glaxo-Wellcome in 1999. It is registered in most developed countries (including Israel) for malaria prophylaxis and for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The AL was introduced later to the pharmacopoeia, but had since been declared by the WHO as the drug of choice for treating malaria in Africa.12 The relative efficacy of AP and AL has not been evaluated in head-to-head clinical trials. Previous non-comparative studies in non-immune population had suggested that AL has a parasite clearance time around 32–41.5 hours and fever clearance time around 24–36.8 hours.16,18 This appears to be much shorter than for AP, which had a parasite clearance time around 63–79.2 hours and fever clearance time around 60.3–88.8 hours.7,8 On the other hand, in a recent study describing the experience with different regimens for uncomplicated malaria in multiple European hospitals, AP and AL were found to have similar fever and parasite clearance time (48 and 72 hours, respectively).19 It should be noted however, that the majority of patients in this study were immigrants visiting friends and relatives, and may not have constituted a non-immune population.

In our study we showed a 13.6% failure rate with AP, whereas only one patient (4%) (who had received an incomplete regimen) had failed to be cured by AL. Although this difference did not reach statistical significance, it should be a source of concern. In recent years several reports have documented AP treatment failure with laboratory evidence of resistance.9,10,20 To date, very few treatment failures had been documented with AL.1315 Some reported AL failures may have been due, as in our case, to incomplete drug administration rather than to parasite resistance.13,15

Our study also showed that the fever clearance time was 44 ± 22.7 hours in patients treated with AL. Although somewhat longer than that reported in previous AL studies,16,18 it was shorter by 33 hours (a 57% reduction) than the fever clearance time on AP, which was 77 ± 28.0 hours (similar to that seen in other AP studies).7,8 This difference in favor of AL was statistically highly significant. Our results differ from a European retrospective study that showed similar fever clearance time for both drugs.19 It should be noted, that patients included in our study were all from a non-immune population, whereas most patients in the European study were immigrants and travelers visiting friends and relatives. Because the fever clearance times we found for both drugs are consistent with those found in other studies that individually measured either AP or AL fever clearance time, we believe they represent a significant difference between the two regimens in non-immune populations.

The secondary outcome measured in our study was hospitalization time. A significant 1.3 days difference was found in the hospitalization time in favor of AL. This outcome is probably the result of more rapid defervescence and patient recovery on AL. The ACTs are known to provide the most potent, and fastest available parasiticidal antimalarial regimen. A shorter hospital stay is likely to be associated with advantages for the patient and the healthcare system alike, and to be cost-effective as well.

Our study has several limitations. This was not a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. However, because treatment allocation changed according to drug availability during the study period, selection bias is unlikely. Furthermore, we were able to show that the groups were similar in all other epidemiological and clinical parameters, except for the choice of drug. Validating these results in a prospective study is recommended, but in the absence of any economic incentive it must rely on governmental initiative rather than on pharmaceutical companies.

The patients in our study were mostly men who returned from Africa, and whether the superiority of AL also extends to cases in malaria acquired elsewhere, and in women is theoretically not established. However, travel to Africa entails the highest risk of malaria acquisition, and in all likelihood, imported malaria from Africa will continue to form the bulk of cases seen in developed countries.

Conclusions

In non-immune travelers with P. falciparum malaria, AL is associated with more rapid defervescence and shorter hospital stay than AP. The high failure rate of AP treatment (especially in West Africa) is a cause of concern, and should be validated by further prospective studies. We believe that AL should be considered the drug of choice for treating travelers with P. falciparum malaria acquired in Africa. Thus, the WHO recommendation for the treatment of malaria in the local population should be applied to returning travelers as well.

  • 1.

    Schwartz E, 2009. Malaria in travelers: epidemiology, clinical aspects and treatment. Schwartz E, ed. Tropical Diseases in Travelers. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Leder K, Black J, O'Brien D, Greenwood Z, Kain KC, Schwartz E, Brown G, Torresi J, 2004. Malaria in travelers: a review of the GeoSentinel surveillance network. Clin Infect Dis 39: 11041112.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Noedl H, Se Y, Sriwichai S, Schaecher K, Teja-Isavadharm P, Smith B, Rutvisuttinunt W, Bethell D, Surasri S, Fukuda MM, Socheat D, Chan Thap L, 2010. Artemisinin resistance in Cambodia: a clinical trial designed to address an emerging problem in Southeast Asia. Clin Infect Dis 51: e82e89.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Sutherland CJ, Laundy M, Price N, Burke M, Fivelman QL, Pasvol G, Klein JL, Chiodini PL, 2008. Mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum cytochrome b gene are associated with delayed parasite recrudescence in malaria patients treated with atovaquone-proguanil. Malar J 7: 240.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Wurtz N, Pascual A, Marin-Jauffre A, Bouchiba H, Benoit N, Desbordes M, Martelloni M, Pommier de Santi V, Richa G, Taudon N, Pradines B, Briolant S, 2012. Early treatment failure during treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria with atovaquone-proguanil in the Republic of Ivory Coast. Malar J 11: 146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Perry TL, Pandey P, Grant JM, Kain KC, 2009. Severe atovaquone-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a Canadian traveler returned from the Indian subcontinent. Open Med 3: e10e16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Hitani A, Nakamura T, Ohtomo H, Nawa Y, Kimura M, 2006. Efficacy and safety of atovaquone-proguanil compared with mefloquine in the treatment of nonimmune patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Japan. J Infect Chemother 12: 277282.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Bouchaud O, Monlun E, Muanza K, Fontanet A, Scott T, Goetschel A, Chulay JD, Le Bras J, Danis M, Le Bras M, Coulaud JP, Gentilini M, 2000. Atovaquone plus proguanil versus halofantrine for the treatment of imported acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in non-immune adults: a randomized comparative trial. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63: 274279.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Fivelman QL, Butcher GA, Adagu IS, Warhurst DC, Pasvol G, 2002. Malarone treatment failure and in vitro confirmation of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum isolate from Lagos, Nigeria. Malar J 1: 1.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Wichmann O, Muehlberger N, Jelinek T, Alifrangis M, Peyerl-Hoffmann G, Muhlen M, Grobusch MP, Gascon J, Matteelli A, Laferl H, Bisoffi Z, Ehrhardt S, Cuadros J, Hatz C, Gjorup I, McWhinney P, Beran J, da Cunha S, Schulze M, Kollaritsch H, Kern P, Fry G, Richter J, 2004. Screening for mutations related to atovaquone/proguanil resistance in treatment failures and other imported isolates of Plasmodium falciparum in Europe. J Infect Dis 190: 15411546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Dondorp AM, Fanello CI, Hendriksen IC, Gomes E, Seni A, Chhaganlal KD, Bojang K, Olaosebikan R, Anunobi N, Maitland K, Kivaya E, Agbenyega T, Nguah SB, Evans J, Gesase S, Kahabuka C, Mtove G, Nadjm B, Deen J, Mwanga-Amumpaire J, Nansumba M, Karema C, Umulisa N, Uwimana A, Mokuolu OA, Adedoyin OT, Johnson WB, Tshefu AK, Onyamboko MA, Sakulthaew T, Ngum WP, Silamut K, Stepniewska K, Woodrow CJ, Bethell D, Wills B, Oneko M, Peto TE, von Seidlein L, Day NP, White NJ, 2010. Artesunate versus quinine in the treatment of severe falciparum malaria in African children (AQUAMAT): an open-label, randomized trial. Lancet 376: 16471657.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    WHO, 2010. Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria. Second edition. Available at: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/9789241547925/en/. Accessed July 18, 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Mizuno Y, Kato Y, Kudo K, Kano S, 2009. First case of treatment failure of artemether-lumefantrine in a Japanese traveler with imported falciparum malaria. Jpn J Infect Dis 62: 139141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Farnert A, Ursing J, Tolfvenstam T, Rono J, Karlsson L, Sparrelid E, Lindegardh N, 2012. Artemether-lumefantrine treatment failure despite adequate lumefantrine day 7 concentration in a traveler with Plasmodium falciparum malaria after returning from Tanzania. Malar J 11: 176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

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Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Eli Schwartz, The Center for Geographic Medicine and Department of Medicine C, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, 52621 Israel. E-mail: elischwa@post.tau.ac.il

Disclosure: This study was performed in partial fulfillment of the M.D. thesis requirements of the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University.

Authors' addresses: Shirly Grynberg, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, The Center for Geographic MedicineTel Hashomer, Israel, Tel Aviv University, and The Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv, Israel, E-mail: shirlygrynberg@gmail.com. Tamar Lachish, Shaare-Zedek Medical Center, The Infectious Diseases Unit, Jerusalem, Israel, E-mail: lachisht@yahoo.com. Eran Kopel, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, The Center for Geographic Medicine, Tel Hashomer, Israel, E-mail: eran.kopel@mail.huji.ac.il. Eyal Meltzer, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, The Center for Geographic Medicine and Department of Medicine C, Tel Hashomer, Israel, and Tel Aviv University, The Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv, Israel, E-mail: emeltzer@post.tau.ac.il. Eli Schwartz, The Center for Geographic Medicine and Department of Medicine C, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel, E-mail: elischwa@post.tau.ac.il.

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