• View in gallery
    Figure 1.

    Spermathecae (arrows) and ducts of a female Lutzomyia tortura sand fly.

  • View in gallery
    Figure 2.

    Phylogenetic tree of cytochrome b gene sequences among species. The leishmanial cyt b genes were amplified from a patient with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL patient) and a positive sand fly (Lu. tortura), and the sequences were determined. Phylogenetic tree analysis was performed with sequences obtained and those from 16 Leishmania species and 2 Endotrypanum species as described in the text. Scale bar indicates 0.01% divergence.

  • 1

    Desjeux P, 1996. Leishmaniasis. Public health aspects and control. Clin Dermatol 14 :417–423.

  • 2

    Choi CM, Lerner EA, 2001. Leishmaniasis as an emerging infection. J Invest Dermatol Symp Proc 6 :175–182.

  • 3

    Killick-Kendrick R, 1999. The biology and control of phlebotomine sand flies. Clin Dermatol 17 :279–289.

  • 4

    Munstermann LE, 2004. Phlebotomine sand flies, the Psychodidae. Marquardt WC, Black WC, Freier JE, Hagedorn HH, Hemingway J, Higgs S, James AA, Kondratieff B, Moore CG, eds. Biology of Disease Vectors. Second edition. San Diego: Elsevier, 141–151.

  • 5

    Amunarriz M, 1991. Leishmaniasis. Estudios Sobre Patologias Tropicales en la Amazonia Ecuatoriana. Cicame, Napo, Ecuador: Cap. 3, 42–64.

  • 6

    Calvopiña M, Guevara A, Armijo R, Gomez EA, Mimori T, Cooper P, Hashiguchi Y, 2001. Clinical features of mucocutaneous leishmaiasis in the Amazonian region of Ecuador. Hashiguchi, Y. ed. Studies on New World Leishmaniasis and its Transmission, with Particular Reference to Ecuador. Kochi, Japan: Kyowa Printing Co., Research Report Series. No. 6: 82–89.

  • 7

    Young DG, Duncan MA, 1994. Guide to the identification and geographic distribution of Lutzomyia sand flies in Mexico, the West Indies, central and South America (Diptera: Psychodidae). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 54. Gainesville, FL: Associated Publishers, American Entomological Institute.

  • 8

    Alexander B, Gomez EA, Takaoka H, Hashiguchi Y, 1990. The Phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae), fauna of Ecuador. Hashiguchi, Y. ed. Studies on New World Leishmaniasis and its Transmission, with Particular Reference to Ecuador. Kochi, Japan: Kyowa Printing Co., Research Report Series. No. 2: 71–103.

  • 9

    Calvopiña M, Armijos RX, Hashiguchi Y, 2004. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Ecuador: current status of knowledge—a review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 99 :663–672.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Young DG, Morales A, 1987. New species and records of phlebotomine sand flies from Colombia (Diptera: Psychodidae). J Med Entomol 24 :651–665.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Barreto M, Burbano ME, Barreto P, 2000. Lutzomyia sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from middle and lower Putumayo Department, Colombia, with new records to the country. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 95 :633–639.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Kato H, Uezato H, Katakura K, Calvopiña M, Marco JD, Barroso PA, Gomez EA, Mimori T, Korenaga M, Iwata H, Nonaka S, Hashiguchi Y, 2005. Detection and identification of Leishmania species within naturally infected sand flies in the Andean areas of Ecuador by a polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72 :87–93.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Kato H, Uezato H, Gomez EA, Terayama Y, Calvopiña M, Iwata H, Hashiguchi Y, 2007. Establishment of a mass screening method of sand fly vectors for Leishmania infection by molecular biological methods. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77 :324–329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Lainson R, Shaw JJ, 1989. Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi sp. n., a parasite of the armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus (L.) in Amazonian Brazil. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 64 :3–9.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Lainson R, Shaw JJ, Silveira FT, Braga RR, Ishikawa EA, 1990. Cutaneous leishmaniasis of man due to Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi Lainson and Shaw, 1989. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 65 :282–284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Naiff RD, Freitas RA, Naiff MF, Arias JR, Barrett TV, Momen H, Grimaldi G Jr, 1991. Epidemiological and nosological aspects of Leishmania naiffi Lainson & Shaw, 1989. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 86 :317–321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Grimaldi G Jr, Momen H, Naiff RD, McMahon-Pratt D, Barrett TV, 1991. Characterization and classification of leishmanial parasites from humans, wild mammals, and sand flies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44 :645–661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Gil LH, Basano SA, Souza AA, Silva MG, Barata I, Ishikawa EA, Camargo LM, Shaw JJ, 2003. Recent observations on the sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) fauna of the State of Rondônia, Western Amazônia, Brazil: the importance of Psychdopygus davisi as a vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98 :751–755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Fouque F, Gaborit P, Issaly J, Carinci R, Gantier JC, Ravel C, Dedet JP, 2007. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with changing patterns in the transmission of the human cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 102 :35–40.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Darie H, Deniau M, Pratlong F, Lanotte G, Talarmin A, Millet P, Houin R, Dedet JP, 1995. Cutaneous leishmaniasis of humans due to Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi outside Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89 :476–477.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Pratlong F, Deniau M, Darie H, Eichenlaub S, Pröll S, Garrabe E, le Guyadec T, Dedet JP, 2002. Human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania naiffi is wide-spread in South America. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 :781–785.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Bañuls AL, Guerrini F, Le Pont F, Barrera C, Espinel I, Guderian R, Echeverria R, Tibayrenc M, 1997. Evidence for hybridization by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA between Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis/guyanensis in Ecuador. J Eukaryot Microbiol 44 :408–411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 201 119 29
PDF Downloads 50 36 2
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

Natural Infection of Lutzomyia tortura with Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi in an Amazonian Area of Ecuador

Hirotomo KatoDepartment of Veterinary Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan; Departamento de Oncocercosis, Servicio Nacional de Erradicacion de la Malaria, Ministerio de Salud Publica, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Biologia Molecular, ESPE-Biotechnologia, Quito, Ecuador; Unidad de Medicina Tropical y Parasitologia, Centro de Biomedicina, Universidad Central, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan

Search for other papers by Hirotomo Kato in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Eduardo A. GomezDepartment of Veterinary Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan; Departamento de Oncocercosis, Servicio Nacional de Erradicacion de la Malaria, Ministerio de Salud Publica, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Biologia Molecular, ESPE-Biotechnologia, Quito, Ecuador; Unidad de Medicina Tropical y Parasitologia, Centro de Biomedicina, Universidad Central, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan

Search for other papers by Eduardo A. Gomez in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Yu-ichi YamamotoDepartment of Veterinary Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan; Departamento de Oncocercosis, Servicio Nacional de Erradicacion de la Malaria, Ministerio de Salud Publica, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Biologia Molecular, ESPE-Biotechnologia, Quito, Ecuador; Unidad de Medicina Tropical y Parasitologia, Centro de Biomedicina, Universidad Central, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan

Search for other papers by Yu-ichi Yamamoto in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Manuel CalvopiñaDepartment of Veterinary Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan; Departamento de Oncocercosis, Servicio Nacional de Erradicacion de la Malaria, Ministerio de Salud Publica, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Biologia Molecular, ESPE-Biotechnologia, Quito, Ecuador; Unidad de Medicina Tropical y Parasitologia, Centro de Biomedicina, Universidad Central, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan

Search for other papers by Manuel Calvopiña in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Angel G. GuevaraDepartment of Veterinary Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan; Departamento de Oncocercosis, Servicio Nacional de Erradicacion de la Malaria, Ministerio de Salud Publica, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Biologia Molecular, ESPE-Biotechnologia, Quito, Ecuador; Unidad de Medicina Tropical y Parasitologia, Centro de Biomedicina, Universidad Central, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan

Search for other papers by Angel G. Guevara in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Jorge D. MarcoDepartment of Veterinary Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan; Departamento de Oncocercosis, Servicio Nacional de Erradicacion de la Malaria, Ministerio de Salud Publica, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Biologia Molecular, ESPE-Biotechnologia, Quito, Ecuador; Unidad de Medicina Tropical y Parasitologia, Centro de Biomedicina, Universidad Central, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan

Search for other papers by Jorge D. Marco in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Paola A. BarrosoDepartment of Veterinary Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan; Departamento de Oncocercosis, Servicio Nacional de Erradicacion de la Malaria, Ministerio de Salud Publica, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Biologia Molecular, ESPE-Biotechnologia, Quito, Ecuador; Unidad de Medicina Tropical y Parasitologia, Centro de Biomedicina, Universidad Central, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan

Search for other papers by Paola A. Barroso in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Hiroyuki IwataDepartment of Veterinary Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan; Departamento de Oncocercosis, Servicio Nacional de Erradicacion de la Malaria, Ministerio de Salud Publica, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Biologia Molecular, ESPE-Biotechnologia, Quito, Ecuador; Unidad de Medicina Tropical y Parasitologia, Centro de Biomedicina, Universidad Central, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan

Search for other papers by Hiroyuki Iwata in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Yoshihisa HashiguchiDepartment of Veterinary Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi, Japan; Departamento de Oncocercosis, Servicio Nacional de Erradicacion de la Malaria, Ministerio de Salud Publica, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan; Biologia Molecular, ESPE-Biotechnologia, Quito, Ecuador; Unidad de Medicina Tropical y Parasitologia, Centro de Biomedicina, Universidad Central, Quito, Ecuador; Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan

Search for other papers by Yoshihisa Hashiguchi in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close

Natural infection of sand flies with Leishmania parasites was surveyed in an Amazonian area in Ecuador where leishmaniasis is endemic. Seventy-one female sand flies were dissected and one was positive for Leishmania protozoa. The species of this sand fly was identified as Lutzomyia (Lu.) tortura on the basis of morphologic characteristics. Analysis of the cytochrome b gene sequence identified the parasite as L. (Viannia) naiffi. We report the distribution of L. (V.) naiffi in Ecuador and detection of a naturally infected sand fly in the Ecuadorian Amazon and natural infection of Lu. tortura with Leishmania parasites in the New World.

Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease caused by the genus Leishmania. It is distributed worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical areas, and affects at least 12 million persons.1,2 Disease occurs in three distinct manifestations (cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral), and the clinical forms are largely associated with the Leishmania species responsible.1,2 Parasites are transmitted by female sand flies of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World and Lutzomyia in the New World.3,4 At present, more than 800 sand fly species are known; however, only a portion of the species can transmit each particular Leishmania species.3,4 Therefore, identification of the prevalent parasite and vector species is important for risk assessment and appropriate treatment.

Currently, little information is available on prevalent parasite and sand fly species in the Ecuadorian Amazon because of difficulty in gaining access to this region. In a previous study, cases of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniases were recorded in these areas5; however, no parasitologic characterization of the causative agents has been made. Recently, we studied mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in these areas and found that Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis is prevalent in Amazonian areas.6 The sand fly species involved in the transmission cycle are not well characterized in these areas. In addition, no natural infection of sand flies with Leishmania species has been reported in the Ecuadorian Amazonia. In the present study, natural infection of sand flies with Leishmania species was surveyed in an area of the Ecuadorian rainforest where leishmaniasis is endemic.

Sand flies were captured with CDC light traps and protected human bait in tropical rainforests in Arajuno (1°23′S, 77°67′W, Department of Pastaza), Ecuador. In this area, 71 female sand flies were dissected for identification at the species level. On the basis of morphologic characteristics of spermathecae,7 11 species were recognized. The two most prevalent sand flies were Lu. yuilli (28 flies) and Lu. tortura (19 flies). Infection with Leishmania species was examined under a microscope and detected in one anthropophilic sand fly. The positive sand fly was identified as Lu. tortura or possibly Lu. hartmanni on the basis of morphologic characteristics (Figure 1). To clarify this finding, we analyzed 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences of the positive fly. The sequences did not match those of Lu. hartmanni. Therefore, the positive sand fly was identified as Lu. tortura. The presence of male Lu. tortura was also confirmed in the same study site, but no male Lu. hartmanni was found. Lutzomyia tortura has been reported in other Amazonian areas such as Taisha (2°38′S, 77°50′W, Department of Morona-Santiago) and Cotapino (0°70′ S, 77°47′W, Department of Orellana),6,8,9 but not on the Pacific coast subtropical and in Andean areas of Ecuador. This species was reported in the Colombian Amazon,7,10,11 which suggests that Lu. tortura is distributed mainly in Amazonian regions. No natural infection of Lu. tortura with Leishmania parasites has been reported in the New World.

The dissected sample, including innumerable promastigotes, was fixed in absolute ethanol and genomic DNA was extracted. Using a portion of the DNA as a template, we amplified the leishmanial cytochrome b (cyt b) gene with a pair of primers, L.cyt-S (5′-GGTGTAGGTTTTAGTYTAGG-3′) and L.cyt-R (5′-CTACAATAAACAAATCATAATATR-CAATT-3′).12,13 The sequence was determined and compared with sequences from 16 Leishmania and 2 Endotrypanum species. A phylogenetic analysis was also performed. The cytb gene sequence had higher homology with that of L. (V.) naiffi (99.6%) than with others (88–97.9%) and phylogenetic tree analysis supported this result (Figure 2), which indicated that the parasite infecting the sand fly was L. (V.) naiffi. The parasite isolated was identified as ITOR/EC/07/Araj1.

Information on infections with L. (V.) naiffi is limited and most cases have been reported in Brazil. Leishmania (V.) naiffi has been isolated from armadillos, the sand fly species Lu. squamiventris, Lu. paraensis, Lu. davisi, and Lu. hirsuta, and humans with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil.1419 Outside Brazil, infection with L. (V.) naiffi was reported in a patient with cutaneous leishmaniasis who was infected in French Guiana, Martinique, or Guadeloupe.20 Four human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (V.) naiffi have been reported; three of the patients were infected in French Guiana or Martinique and one was suspected to be infected in Ecuador or Peru because the patient had a been on a seven-week trip to Ecuador and Peru that included four days in the Ecuadorian Amazon.21 This report suggested that L. (V.) naiffi may have spread in Ecuador. Other than this one suspected case, no case of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (V.) naiffi has been reported in Ecuador, probably because of limited research in the Amazonian regions.

During our field research, one suspected case of cutaneous leishmaniasis was found and tissue material from this person (a four-year-old girl) from an active cutaneous lesion was placed on an FTA Classic Card (Whatman BioScience, Newton, MA). DNA was extracted from the specimen and the leishmanial cyt b gene was amplified. The cyt b gene sequence had the highest degree of homology with that of L. (V.) guyanensis (99.9%), and phylogenetic tree analysis supported the result (Figure 2), indicating that the patient was infected with L. (V.) guyanensis. The presence of L. (V.) braziliensis and hybrid genotypes between L. (V.) panamensis/guyanensis and L. (V.) braziliensis in the Ecuadorian Amazon has been reported.6,9,22 We have shown that L. (V.) guyanensis is present in the Amazonian areas of Ecuador, but no human cases infected with L. (V.) naiffi were found in the present study. However, this species may be circulating in this area because it was detected in a highly anthropophilic species of sand fly. Further research in Amazonian regions will provide more information on human cases of infection with L. (V.) naiffi.

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Spermathecae (arrows) and ducts of a female Lutzomyia tortura sand fly.

Citation: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Am J Trop Med Hyg 79, 3; 10.4269/ajtmh.2008.79.438

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Phylogenetic tree of cytochrome b gene sequences among species. The leishmanial cyt b genes were amplified from a patient with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL patient) and a positive sand fly (Lu. tortura), and the sequences were determined. Phylogenetic tree analysis was performed with sequences obtained and those from 16 Leishmania species and 2 Endotrypanum species as described in the text. Scale bar indicates 0.01% divergence.

Citation: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Am J Trop Med Hyg 79, 3; 10.4269/ajtmh.2008.79.438

*

Address correspondence to Hirotomo Kato, Department of Veterinary Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi 753-8515, Japan. E-mail: katoh@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp

Authors’ addresses: Hirotomo Kato and Hiroyuki Iwata, Department of Veterinary Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi 753-8515, Japan. Eduardo A. Gomez, Departamento de Oncocercosis, Servicio Nacional de Erradicacion de la Malaria, Ministerio de Salud Publica, Quito, Ecuador. Yu-ichi Yamamoto, Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0215, Japan. Manuel Calvopiña and Angel G. Guevara, Unidad de Medicina Tropical y Parasitologia, Centro de Biomedicina, Universidad Central, Quito, Ecuador. Jorge D. Marco, Paola A. Barroso, and Yoshihisa Hashiguchi, Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8505, Japan.

Acknowledgments: We thank Roberto Sud (Ministerio de Salud Publica y Asistencia Social, Guayaquil, Ecuador) and Flavio-Valeriano Zambrano (Servicio Ncional de Erradicacion de la Malaria, Guayaquil, Ecuador) for technical assistance throughout the study, and Dr. Luiggi Martini and Dr. Ernesto Gutierrez V. (Instituto Nacional de Higiene y Medicina Tropical, Guayaquil, Ecuador) for arranging our field activities. We also thank the DNA Core Facility of the Center for Gene Research, Yamaguchi University for technical assistance.

Financial support: This study was supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan (grants 14256004, 18256004, and 18780230). The DNA Core Facility of the Center for Gene Research, Yamaguchi University, was supported by a grant-in-aid from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture of Japan.

REFERENCES

  • 1

    Desjeux P, 1996. Leishmaniasis. Public health aspects and control. Clin Dermatol 14 :417–423.

  • 2

    Choi CM, Lerner EA, 2001. Leishmaniasis as an emerging infection. J Invest Dermatol Symp Proc 6 :175–182.

  • 3

    Killick-Kendrick R, 1999. The biology and control of phlebotomine sand flies. Clin Dermatol 17 :279–289.

  • 4

    Munstermann LE, 2004. Phlebotomine sand flies, the Psychodidae. Marquardt WC, Black WC, Freier JE, Hagedorn HH, Hemingway J, Higgs S, James AA, Kondratieff B, Moore CG, eds. Biology of Disease Vectors. Second edition. San Diego: Elsevier, 141–151.

  • 5

    Amunarriz M, 1991. Leishmaniasis. Estudios Sobre Patologias Tropicales en la Amazonia Ecuatoriana. Cicame, Napo, Ecuador: Cap. 3, 42–64.

  • 6

    Calvopiña M, Guevara A, Armijo R, Gomez EA, Mimori T, Cooper P, Hashiguchi Y, 2001. Clinical features of mucocutaneous leishmaiasis in the Amazonian region of Ecuador. Hashiguchi, Y. ed. Studies on New World Leishmaniasis and its Transmission, with Particular Reference to Ecuador. Kochi, Japan: Kyowa Printing Co., Research Report Series. No. 6: 82–89.

  • 7

    Young DG, Duncan MA, 1994. Guide to the identification and geographic distribution of Lutzomyia sand flies in Mexico, the West Indies, central and South America (Diptera: Psychodidae). Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute, 54. Gainesville, FL: Associated Publishers, American Entomological Institute.

  • 8

    Alexander B, Gomez EA, Takaoka H, Hashiguchi Y, 1990. The Phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae), fauna of Ecuador. Hashiguchi, Y. ed. Studies on New World Leishmaniasis and its Transmission, with Particular Reference to Ecuador. Kochi, Japan: Kyowa Printing Co., Research Report Series. No. 2: 71–103.

  • 9

    Calvopiña M, Armijos RX, Hashiguchi Y, 2004. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Ecuador: current status of knowledge—a review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 99 :663–672.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Young DG, Morales A, 1987. New species and records of phlebotomine sand flies from Colombia (Diptera: Psychodidae). J Med Entomol 24 :651–665.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Barreto M, Burbano ME, Barreto P, 2000. Lutzomyia sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from middle and lower Putumayo Department, Colombia, with new records to the country. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 95 :633–639.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Kato H, Uezato H, Katakura K, Calvopiña M, Marco JD, Barroso PA, Gomez EA, Mimori T, Korenaga M, Iwata H, Nonaka S, Hashiguchi Y, 2005. Detection and identification of Leishmania species within naturally infected sand flies in the Andean areas of Ecuador by a polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72 :87–93.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Kato H, Uezato H, Gomez EA, Terayama Y, Calvopiña M, Iwata H, Hashiguchi Y, 2007. Establishment of a mass screening method of sand fly vectors for Leishmania infection by molecular biological methods. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77 :324–329.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Lainson R, Shaw JJ, 1989. Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi sp. n., a parasite of the armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus (L.) in Amazonian Brazil. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 64 :3–9.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Lainson R, Shaw JJ, Silveira FT, Braga RR, Ishikawa EA, 1990. Cutaneous leishmaniasis of man due to Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi Lainson and Shaw, 1989. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 65 :282–284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Naiff RD, Freitas RA, Naiff MF, Arias JR, Barrett TV, Momen H, Grimaldi G Jr, 1991. Epidemiological and nosological aspects of Leishmania naiffi Lainson & Shaw, 1989. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 86 :317–321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Grimaldi G Jr, Momen H, Naiff RD, McMahon-Pratt D, Barrett TV, 1991. Characterization and classification of leishmanial parasites from humans, wild mammals, and sand flies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44 :645–661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Gil LH, Basano SA, Souza AA, Silva MG, Barata I, Ishikawa EA, Camargo LM, Shaw JJ, 2003. Recent observations on the sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) fauna of the State of Rondônia, Western Amazônia, Brazil: the importance of Psychdopygus davisi as a vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98 :751–755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Fouque F, Gaborit P, Issaly J, Carinci R, Gantier JC, Ravel C, Dedet JP, 2007. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with changing patterns in the transmission of the human cutaneous leishmaniasis in French Guiana. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 102 :35–40.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Darie H, Deniau M, Pratlong F, Lanotte G, Talarmin A, Millet P, Houin R, Dedet JP, 1995. Cutaneous leishmaniasis of humans due to Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi outside Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 89 :476–477.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Pratlong F, Deniau M, Darie H, Eichenlaub S, Pröll S, Garrabe E, le Guyadec T, Dedet JP, 2002. Human cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania naiffi is wide-spread in South America. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 :781–785.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Bañuls AL, Guerrini F, Le Pont F, Barrera C, Espinel I, Guderian R, Echeverria R, Tibayrenc M, 1997. Evidence for hybridization by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA between Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis/guyanensis in Ecuador. J Eukaryot Microbiol 44 :408–411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Hirotomo Kato, Department of Veterinary Hygiene, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, Yamaguchi 753-8515, Japan, E-mail: katoh@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp.
Save