Address correspondence to Kija R. Ng’habi, Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, PO Box 53, Ifakara, United Republic of Tanzania. E-mail: email@example.com
Authors’ addresses: Kija R Ng’habi, Ifakara Health Research and Development Centre, PO Box 53, Ifakara, United Republic of Tanzania, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Ashley Horton and Gregory Lanzaro, Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, 396C Briggs, One Shield Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8584, E-mails: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org. Bart G. J. Knols, Laboratory of Entomology. PO Box 8031, 6700 EH, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands, E-mail: Bart.Knols@wur.nl.
Acknowledgments: We thank the Vector Genetic Laboratory (University of California) for cooperation during the entire period of this study; Claudio Meneses for invaluable technical assistance during mosquito rearing and PCR optimization; Dr. Mark Benedict for suggestions and literature that made this study possible; and Dr. Heather Ferguson for reviewing the manuscript before submission.
Financial support: We acknowledge the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for financial support through a fellowship awarded to KRN to work at UC Davis. This research forms part of a VIDI Grant 864.03.004 from the Dutch Scientific Organization (NWO) awarded to BGJK. In addition, we acknowledge support to GCL through Grant AI040308 from the National Institutes of Health.
White MJD, 1973. Animal Cytology and Evolution. Cambridge: University Press.
Skaletsky H, Kuroda-Kawaguchi T, Minx PJ, Cordum HS, Hillier L, 2003. The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequencie classes. Nature 423 :825–837.
Bachtrog D, 2003. Accumulation of spock and worf, two novel non-LTR retrotransposons on the neo Y-chromosome of Drosophila miranda. Mol Biol Evol 20 :173–181.
Bachtrog D, 2003. Adaptation shapes pattern of genome evolution on sexual and asexual chromosomes in Drosophila. Nat Genet 34 :215–219.
Carvalho AB, Lazzaro BP, Clack AG, 2000. Y-chromosomal fertility factors kl-2 and kl-3 of Drosophila melanogaster encode dynein havy chain polypeptides. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98 :13225–13230.
Carvalho AB, Dobo BA, Vibranovski MD, Clack AG, 2001. Identification of five new genes on the Y-chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster genome: how far can we go? Genetica 117 :227–237.
Steinemann M, Steinemann S, 1998. Enigma of Y-chromosome degeneration: neo-Y and neo-X chromosomes of Drosophila miranda a model for sex chromosome evolution. Genetica 102/103 :409–420.
Krzywinski J, Nusskern DR, Kern MK, Besansky NJ, 2004. Isolation and Characterization of Y chromosome sequences from the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Genetics 166 :1291–1302.
Krzywinski J, Sangare D, Besansky NJ, 2005. Satellite DNA from the Y-chromosome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Genetics 169 :185–196.
Clements AN, 1992. The Biology of Mosquitoes, Vol 1: Development, Nutrition and Reproduction. London: Chapmann and Hall.
Chomczynski P, Mackey K, Drews R, Wilfinger W, 1997. DNA-zol: a reagent for the rapid isolation of genomic DNA. Bio-techniques 22 :550–553.
Tabachnick WJ, 2003. Reflections on the Anopheles gambiae genome sequence, transgenic mosquitoes and the prospect for controlling malaria and other vector borne diseases. J Med Entomol 40 :597–606.
Catteruccia F, Godfray HCJ, Crisanti A, 2003. Impact of genetic manipulation on the fitness of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Science 299 :1225–1227.
Knols BGJ, Njiru BNN, Mathenge EM, Mukabana WR, Beier JC, Killeen GF, 2002. Malariasphere: a greenhouse-enclosed simulation of a natural Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culi-cidae) ecosystem in Western Kenya. Malar J 1 :19.
Ferguson FM, John B, Ng’habi KR, Knols BGJ, 2005. Addressing the sex imbalance in knowledge of vector biology. Trends Ecol Evol 20 :202–209.
Knols BGJ, Njiru BNN, Mukabana RW, Mathenge EM, Killeen GF, 2003. Contained semi-field environments for ecological studies on transgenic African malaria vectors. Scott TW, Takken W, eds. Ecology of Transgenic Mosquitoes. Wageningen: Wageningen University and Research Centre, 99–106.