• View in gallery

    Seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection stratified by age among four different study groups. This figure appears in color at www.ajtmh.org.

  • 1

    Keystone JS, Keystone DL, Proctor EM, 1980. Intestinal parasitic infections in homosexual men: prevalence, symptoms and factors in transmission. CMAJ 123 :512–514.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Phillips SC, Mildvan D, William DC, Gelb AM, White AC, 1981. Sexual transmission of enteric protozoa and helminths in a venereal-disease-clinic population. N Engl J Med 305 :603–606.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Quinn TC, Stamm WE, Goodell SE, Mkrtichian E, Benedetti J, Corey L, Schuffler MD, Holmes KK, 1983. The polymicrobial origin of intestinal infections in homosexual men. N Engl J Med 309 :576–582.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Markell EK, Hanens RF, Kuritsubo RA, Wingerd J, 1984. Intestinal protozoa in homosexual men of the San Francisco Bay area: prevalence and correlates of infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33 :239–245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Allason-Jones E, Mindel A, Sargenunt P, Williams P, 1986. Entamoeba histolytica as a commensal intestinal parasite in homosexual men. N Engl J Med 315 :353–356.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Lowther SA, Dworkin MS, Hanson DL, and the Adult and Adolescent Spectrum of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Project, 2000. Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 30 :955–959.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Aceti A, Pennica A, Ippolito G, Moretto D, Rezza G, Titti F, Perucci CA, 1987. Antiamebic antibodies in homosexual men. N Engl J Med 316 :692.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Takeuchi T, Okuzawa E, Nozaki T, Kobayashi S, Mizokami M, Minoshima N, Yamamoto M, Isomura S, 1989. High seropositivity of Japanese homosexual men for amebic infection. J Infect Dis 159 :808.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Takeuchi T, Miyahira Y, Kobyash S, Nozaki T, Motta S, Matsuda L, 1990. High seropositivity for Entamoeba histolytica infection in Japanese homosexual men: further evidence for occurrence of pathogenic strains. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84 :250–251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Hung CC, Chen PJ, Hsieh SM, Wong JM, Chen MY, Chang SC, 1999. Invasive amebiasis: an emerging parasitic disease in patients with HIV infection in an endemic area of amebic infection. AIDS 13 :2421–2428.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Mitarai S, Nagai H, Satoh K, Hebisawa A, Shishido H, 2001. Amebiasis in Japanese homosexual men with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Intern Med 40 :671–675.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Ohnishi K, Kato Y, Imamura A, Fukayama M, Tsunoda T, Sakaue Y, Sakamoto M, Sagara H, 2004. Present characteristics of symptomatic Entamoeba histolytica infection in the big cities of Japan. Epidemiol Infect 132 :57–60.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Hung CC, Deng HI, Hsiao WH, Hsieh SM, Hsiao CF, Chen MY, Chang SC, Su KE, 2005. Invasive amoebiasis is an emerging parasitic infection in patients with HIV infection. Arch Intern Med 165 :409–415.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1992. 1993 Revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 41 :1–19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Haque R, Ali IM, Sack RB, Farr BM, Ramakrishnan G, Petri WA Jr, 2001. Amebiasis and mucosal IgA antibody against the Entamoeba histolytica adherence lectin in Bangladesh children. J Infect Dis 183 :1787–1793.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Haque R, Mollah NU, Ali IKM, Alam K, Eubanks A, Lyerly D, Petri WA Jr, 2000. Diagnosis of amebic liver abscess and intestinal infection with the Techlab Entamoeba histolytica II antigen detection and antibody tests. J Clin Microbiol 38 :3235–3239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Blessmann J, Ali IK, Nu PA, Dinh BT, Viet TQ, Van AL, Clark CG, Tannich E, 2003. Longitudinal study of intestinal Entamoeba histolytica infections in asymptomatic adult carriers. J Clin Microbiol 41 :4745–4750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Sorvillo FJ, Strassburg MA, Seidel J, Visvesvara GS, Mori K, Todd A, Portigal L, Finn M, Agee BA, 1986. Amebic infections in asymptomatic homosexual men: lack of evidence of invasive disease. Am J Public Health 76 :1137–1139.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Lee HC, Ko NY, Chang MP, Lee WC, Ko WC, 2005. Prevalence of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in gay saunas in Taiwan. Clin Microbiol Infect 11 (Suppl 2):198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Moran P, Ramos F, Ramiro M, Curiel O, Gonzalez E, Valadez A, Gomez A, Garcia G, Melendro EI, Ximenez C, 2005. Infection by human immunodeficiency virus-1 is not a risk factor for amebiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73 :296–300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

 

 

 

 

HIGHER SEROPREVALENCE OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA INFECTION IS ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS TYPE 1 INFECTION IN TAIWAN

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  • 1 Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Departments of Internal Medicine and Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan; Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan Town, Taiwan

We assessed the seroprevalence of Entamoeba histolytica infection using indirect hemagglutination antibody (IHA) assay among 667 HIV-infected persons (group A), 1,311 asymptomatic HIV-uninfected persons seeking anonymous HIV testing (group B), 616 HIV-uninfected controls with gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea and/or liver abscess) seeking medical care (group C), and 2,500 healthy controls undergoing health check-up (group D). An IHA titer ≥ 128 was detected in 7.1% of group A, 2.5% of group B, 1.8% of group C, and 0.1% of group D (P < 0.0001). The highest seroprevalence (11.2%) was noted among HIV-infected persons who were men having sex with men (MSM) 30–39 years of age. Compared with persons with gastrointestinal symptoms, the adjusted odds ratio for having high IHA titers among HIV-infected persons was 3.206 (95% confidence interval, 1.433, 7.176; P = 0.005). These findings show that HIV-infected persons, especially MSM 30–39 years of age, are at significantly higher risk of E. histolytica infection.

INTRODUCTION

Invasive amebiasis has been rarely described in men having sex with men (MSM)15 or persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the western countries6 despite the fact that as many as 20–30% of MSM are colonized with Entamoeba dispar that is nonpathogenic and will not induce positive amebic serologies.15 In a large retrospective review of > 34,000 HIV-infected persons, only 111 were diagnosed as having amebiasis, for which differentiation between E. histolytica and E. dispar was not made.6 However, recent serologic studies suggest that positive amebic serologies indicative of past or current episodes of E. histolytica infection is not uncommon in MSM, and the seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection of MSM is much higher than that of heterosexual males and commercial sex workers.79 Furthermore, case series studies also suggested that invasive amebiasis is an emerging parasitic disease among MSM with or without HIV infection.1012 In three metropolitan cities in Japan, > 50% (56%) of 55 men diagnosed as having amebic colitis or liver abscess were MSM, and 45% of the 47 persons tested had HIV infection.12 The likely cause of the higher rate of invasive amebiasis is the higher intestinal colonization rate by E. histolytica that is pathogenic and may induce positive amebic serologies.13

To better understand if HIV-infected persons have a higher seroprevalence rate of E. histolytica infection than persons at low risk of HIV infection, we conducted a serologic study of four different groups of persons: persons with HIV infection, asymptomatic HIV-uninfected persons seeking anonymous HIV testing, persons without HIV infection who presented for medical care because of gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea and/or liver abscess), and persons who underwent health check-up at the hospital. We will show that positive amebic serologies are significantly more common in HIV-infected persons, especially MSM.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2004, we conducted a serologic survey of prospectively collected blood specimens from four groups of subjects at the National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH) to understand the seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection in Taiwan. NTUH is located in Taipei City and provides primary and tertiary medical care to residents all around Taiwan. It has been the largest referral hospital for HIV care in Taiwan, where an estimated 36 per 100,000 persons were diagnosed as having HIV-1 infection as of June 30, 2005, and MSM accounted for 40% of the cases. The characteristics of persons receiving HIV care at this hospital have been described previously.13 In brief, 70% of the HIV-infected persons were diagnosed with AIDS according to the 1993 revised surveillance case definition14; three fourths of them had received highly active anti-retroviral therapy. The majority of the persons acquired HIV through sex routes, 60% were MSM and 33.0% were heterosexuals.

Four groups of study subjects were defined: group A, 667 consecutive non-hemophiliac HIV-infected adult persons ≥ 15 years of age seeking HIV care at the NTUH; group B, 1,311 persons seeking anonymous testing for HIV infection whose test results were negative; group C, 616 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea and/or liver abscess) who sought medical care at the hospital and were tested negative for HIV infection; and group D, 2,500 persons who sought health check-up at the hospital. Persons of group D did not undergo anti-HIV antibody testing and were considered as controls. A standardized case record form was used to collect information of risk behaviors for HIV transmission among persons who were HIV-infected and persons who sought anonymous HIV testing. However, because of the anonymity in the latter study group, we were unable to identify the exact number of persons who might have repeat HIV testing over the 4 study years.

Anti-HIV antibody assays (SERODIA-HIV; Fujirebio, Tokyo, Japan) and indirect hemagglutination antibody (IHA) assays (Cellognostics; Boehhringer Diagnostics, Marburg, Germany) were performed by following the manufacturer’s instructions by research assistants who were blinded to the clinical characteristics of study subjects. A person was considered to have serologic diagnosis of E. histolytica infection when the blood specimens showed a high IHA titer that was defined as 1:128 or greater. The Institutional Review Board of the hospital approved the study protocol.

All statistical analyses were performed using SAS statistical software (Version 8.2; SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Categorical variables were compared using χ2 or Fisher’s exact test. Non-categorical variables were compared using Wilcoxon’s rank-sum test. The multiple logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors associated with high IHA titers. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were also calculated. All tests were two-tailed. A P < 0.05 was considered significant.

RESULTS

The demographic characteristics of the persons of the four study groups undergoing IHA assays are shown in Table 1. HIV-infected persons (group A) and persons who sought anonymous HIV testing (group B) were younger and more likely to be men than persons of the other two groups. Persons who were HIV-uninfected and underwent IHA assays because of gastrointestinal symptoms (group C) were significantly older than those of the other three groups.

HIV-infected persons had a significantly higher seropositive rate of E. histolytica infection, followed by the persons who were at risk for HIV infection, persons with gastrointestinal symptoms, and healthy controls (Figure 1). Of the 667 HIV-infected persons, 47 (7.1%) had high IHA titers, with titers ranging from 128 to 8,192 (median, 128). Of the 1,311 asymptomatic persons at risk for HIV infection, 33 (2.5%) had high IHA titers; all had a titer of 128. Of the persons of the other two groups at low risk of HIV infection, the seropositivity rate of amebic infection caused by E. histolytica was 1.8% (11 of 616) and 0.1% (3 of 2,500) in HIV-uninfected persons with gastrointestinal symptoms and healthy controls whose HIV status was unknown, respectively (Figure 1). Over the 4 study years, there were no trends of increasing seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection in the four study groups (data not shown).

When the seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection was compared after stratification by age group and sex among persons with HIV infection, those of the age group between 30 and 39 years who were MSM had the highest seropositivity rate (11.2%; Table 1). More than 80% of the persons with high IHA titers in the group A and B were between 20 and 49 years of age. In contrast, most of HIV-uninfected persons with gastrointestinal symptoms who had high IHA titers were in the age groups of 40–49 years or greater (Table 1). The proportion of male sex in persons with high IHA titers in groups A (100%) and B (93.9%) was significantly higher than persons in groups C (63.6%) and group D (66.7%). In addition, men in groups A and B had statistically significantly higher seroprevalence of invasive amebiasis than women, which was not seen in men of groups C and D (Table 1).

Compared with healthy controls, all of the other three groups of persons were at statistically significantly higher risk for having positive amebic serologies (Table 2). Compared with HIV-uninfected persons who presented with gastrointestinal symptoms, HIV-infected persons remained at a significantly higher risk for having positive amebic serologies with an odds ratio of 3.206 (95% CI, 1.433, 7.176; P = 0.005) after adjustment for age, sex, and year enrolled (Table 2). Compared with HIV-uninfected persons seeking anonymous HIV testing, the odds ratio for having positive amebic serologies among HIV-infected persons after adjustment for age, sex, risk behavior, and year enrolled was 1.349 (95% CI, 0.767, 2.347; P = 0.30), although the seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection of the latter was significantly higher than that of the former (Table 2).

DISCUSSION

In this study, we found that, in Taiwan, HIV-infected persons were at statistically significantly higher risk for E. histolytica infection than persons seeking anonymous HIV testing, healthy controls, and HIV-uninfected persons with gastrointestinal symptoms who underwent serologic tests for invasive amebiasis. Persons seeking anonymous HIV testing may represent persons at high risk for HIV transmission regardless of risk behavior, whereas healthy controls and HIV-uninfected persons with gastrointestinal symptoms may represent the low and high risk of E. histolytica infection in Taiwan, respectively.

The seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection may vary with geographic regions and populations studied. There is a high prevalence of colonization and infection with E. histolytica in developing countries.1517 For example, 15% of the children in Bangladesh had serologic evidence of prior or current episode of E. histolytica infection, and reinfection was common.15,16 In Vietnam, the prevalence of E. histolytica infection among adults was 11.2%, and the mean half-life of infection was estimated to be 12.9 months.17 In Taiwan, we found that 0 of 144 HIV-uninfected healthy adults was infected with E. histolytica determined by amebic antigen tests of the stool specimens, and 0 of 178 had high IHA titers suggestive of past or current E. histolytica infection.13 These findings of low background seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection in Taiwan was further supported by this study with a larger case number, in which only 3 of 2,500 (0.1%) adults seeking health check-up had high IHA titers.

Despite the fact that prevalence of colonization and infection with E. histolytica has been low in developed countries, E. histolytica seems to be an emerging cause of parasitic infection in MSM in several developed countries. In Italy and Japan, the seropositivity rates of E. histolytica infection have been previously reported to be as high as 20% in MSM whose HIV status was not known; the rates were significantly higher than heterosexuals and female sex workers.79 More than 5% (5.7%) of 140 MSM in a study conducted in the United States had serologic evidence of E. histolytica infection, which was found to correlate with intestinal colonization with E. histolytica.18 In this study, we further provided evidence that HIV-infected persons who were MSM at the age of 30–39 years were at particularly higher risk for having serologic evidence of E. histolytica infection (Figure 1).

The higher seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection in HIV-infected persons in our study is related to a higher rate of intestinal colonization with E. histolytica infection,13 which is different from the findings in previous studies from western countries where a substantial proportion of MSM are colonized with E. dispar that does not cause invasive diseases or positive amebic serologies.15 Retrospective case reviews in Taiwan and Japan indicated that invasive amebiasis was an emerging parasitic disease among HIV-infected persons who were MSM.1012 In three metropolitan cities in Japan, MSM and persons with HIV infection accounted for 56% and 45% of the reported cases of symptomatic E. histolytica infection, respectively.12 Of 49 HIV-infected persons with invasive amebiasis in Taiwan, 41 (83.7%) were MSM.13 Both studies indicated that MSM who are HIV-infected are at higher risk for invasive amebiasis. Furthermore, we found that in HIV-infected persons the rate of E. histolytica infection among MSM (8.6%) was significantly higher than heterosexuals (2.0%) and HIV-uninfected healthy controls (0%).12

Among MSM, E. dispar may be transmitted through fecal–oral route and oral–anal sex. Infection with E. dispar is considered as the sentinel sign of oral–anal sex practice in the developed countries where the likelihood of acquisition of amebic infection through contaminated water or food but without foreign travel is low.15 Such an association between E. dispar and oral–anal sex practice may also be applied to the case of E. histolytica infection among MSM. In this study, we found that MSM who are HIV-infected are indeed at higher risk for invasive amebiasis, even higher than the HIV-uninfected persons who sought medical care for gastrointestinal symptoms. The findings imply that MSM have to take precautions against acquisition of E. histolytica during oral–anal sex with persons residing in or returning from endemic areas of E. histolytica.

The study has several limitations, and interpretation of the data should be cautious because of selection biases. First, we did not collect the clinical information of HIV-infected persons regarding gastrointestinal symptoms or HIV-uninfected individuals with gastrointestinal symptoms regarding whether their symptomatology was related to E. histolytica infection. We might have overestimated the seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection because the enrolled HIV-infected patients were more immunosuppressive and had more gastrointestinal symptoms. However, our previous study has shown that invasive amebiasis and a high seropositivity rate (10.0%) for E. histolytica occurred when HIV-infected patients had CD4 count of 200/μL or greater when opportunistic infections of the gastrointestinal tract is less likely to develop.13 Compared with the persons seeking medical care because of gastrointestinal symptoms, seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection remained significantly higher in HIV-infected persons. Second, we might have underestimated the seroprevalence of those persons who sought anonymous HIV testing because we were not able to exclude the possibility of repeat HIV testing. However, in a recent study of 213 MSM who frequented gay bathhouses in Taiwan, the estimated seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection was 5.6%,19 a rate similar to that of the study by Sorvillo in the United States.18 Third, the study was conducted in a metropolitan city where invasive amebiasis is rare in the general population. The findings may not be generalized to developing countries that are endemic for E. histolytica infection and having rapid increase of case numbers of HIV infection,17,20 although E. histolytica and E. dispar infection is also more prevalent in persons with HIV infection and AIDS.20

In conclusion, our study suggests that HIV infection is associated with increased risk of serologic evidence of amebic infection caused by E. histolytica in persons who are MSM.

Table 1

Characteristics of the four groups of persons undergoing IHA testing, 2000–2004

A: persons with HIV infectionB: persons at risk for HIV infectionC: persons with gastrointestinal symptomsD: persons undergoing physical check-upStatistics P
IDU, intravenous drug user; NA, not available; MSM, men who have sex with men.
Person number66713116162500
Male sex (%)621 (93.1)1087 (81.1)382 (62.0)1749 (70.0)< 0.0001
Median age of all persons tested in each group, years (range)34 (17, 81)28 (15, 83)56 (15, 98)35 (15, 91)< 0.0001
    < 20 (n) (%)6 (0.9)67 (5.1)16 (2.6)904 (36.2)< 0.0001
    20–29192 (28.8)699 (53.3)56 (9.1)227 (9.1)
    30–39266 (39.9)368 (28.1)67 (10.9)230 (9.2)
    40–49111 (16.6)110 (8.4)100 (16.2)362 (14.5)
    50–5960 (9.0)46 (3.5)102 (16.6)426 (17.0)
    > 6032 (4.8)21 (1.6)275 (44.6)351 (14.0)
Persons with high IHA titers (≥ 128) (%)47 (7.1)33 (2.5)11 (1.8)3 (0.1)< 0.0001
    Male sex (%)47 (100)31 (93.9)7 (63.6)2 (66.7)< 0.0001
Risk behavior (%)A vs B
    Homosexual/bisexual468 (71.2)312 (23.8)NANA< 0.0001
    Heterosexual154 (23.4)530 (40.4)
    IDU18 (2.7)0 (0)
    Others (including unknown)27 (2.6)471 (35.9)
Risk behavior with high IHA titers (n/N) (%)
    Homosexual/bisexual41/468 (8.8)14/312 (4.5)NANA0.02
    Heterosexual2/154 (1.3)14/530 (2.6)0.33
    IDU1/18 (5.6)0 (0)
    Others (including unknown)3/27 (11.1) P = 0.015/471 (1.1) P = 0.010.007
Median age of persons with high IHA titers, years (range)35 (20, 54)32 (19, 72)48 (30, 71)46 (43, 62)0.0003
    < 20 (n) (%)0 (0)1 (1.5)0 (0)0 (0)0.14
    20–2910 (5.2)14 (2.0)0 (0)0 (0)0.001
    30–3926 (9.8)7 (1.9)2 (3.0)0 (0)< 0.0001
    40–498 (7.2)7 (6.4)4 (4.0)2 (0.6)0.0004
    50–593 (5.0)3 (6.5)2 (2.0)0 (0)< 0.0001
    ≥ 600 (0)1 (4.8)3 (1.1)1 (0.3)0.10
Median age of MSM with high IHA titers (range)34 (20, 52)30 (19, 50)NANA0.22
Prevalence of high IHA titers in each age group of MSM
    < 20 (n/N) (%)0/5 (0)1/21 (4.8)1.00
    20–2910/161 (6.2)6/189 (3.2)0.18
    30–3923/206 (11.2)3/77 (3.9)0.06
    40–496/67 (9.0)3/19 (15.8)0.39
    ≥ 502/29 (7.0)1/6 (16.7)0.44
Table 2

Summary of adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of high titers when comparisons were made with each other among the four study groups

Group BGroup CGroup D
Group A, 667 HIV-infected persons; group B, 1311 HIV-uninfected persons seeking anonymous HIV testing; group C, 616 HIV-uninfected persons with gastrointestinal symptoms; group D, 2500 persons seeking health check-up.
* Adjusted for age, sex, risk behavior, and year enrolled.
† Adjusted for age, sex, and year enrolled.
Group A1.349 (0.767, 2.347)*3.206 (1.433, 7.176)†50.838 (15.651, 165.135)†
Group B1.638 (0.608, 4.410)†29.188 (8.354, 101.985)†
Group C15.294 (3.864, 60.527)†
Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Seroprevalence of E. histolytica infection stratified by age among four different study groups. This figure appears in color at www.ajtmh.org.

Citation: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Am J Trop Med Hyg 74, 6; 10.4269/ajtmh.2006.74.1016

*

Address correspondence to Chien-Ching Hung, Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei 100, Taiwan. E-mail: hcc0401@ha.mc.ntu.edu.tw

Authors’ addresses: Jih-Jin Tsai, Liang-Yin Ke, and Jeng-Hsien Yen, 100 Tzyou 1st Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 807. Hsin-Yun Sun, Keh-Sung Tsai, Sui-Yuan Chang, Szu-Min Hsieh, Chien-Ching Hung, and Shan-Chwen Chang, 7 Chung-Shan Road, Taipei, Taiwan 100. Chin-Fu Hsiao, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli County, Taiwan 350.

Acknowledgment: We thank Dr. Victor L. Yu of University of Pittsburgh for review of the manuscript.

Financial support: This study was supported by the Center for Disease Control, Department of Health, Executive Yuan, Taiwan (DOH94-DC-1017).

REFERENCES

  • 1

    Keystone JS, Keystone DL, Proctor EM, 1980. Intestinal parasitic infections in homosexual men: prevalence, symptoms and factors in transmission. CMAJ 123 :512–514.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Phillips SC, Mildvan D, William DC, Gelb AM, White AC, 1981. Sexual transmission of enteric protozoa and helminths in a venereal-disease-clinic population. N Engl J Med 305 :603–606.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Quinn TC, Stamm WE, Goodell SE, Mkrtichian E, Benedetti J, Corey L, Schuffler MD, Holmes KK, 1983. The polymicrobial origin of intestinal infections in homosexual men. N Engl J Med 309 :576–582.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Markell EK, Hanens RF, Kuritsubo RA, Wingerd J, 1984. Intestinal protozoa in homosexual men of the San Francisco Bay area: prevalence and correlates of infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33 :239–245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Allason-Jones E, Mindel A, Sargenunt P, Williams P, 1986. Entamoeba histolytica as a commensal intestinal parasite in homosexual men. N Engl J Med 315 :353–356.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Lowther SA, Dworkin MS, Hanson DL, and the Adult and Adolescent Spectrum of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Project, 2000. Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 30 :955–959.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Aceti A, Pennica A, Ippolito G, Moretto D, Rezza G, Titti F, Perucci CA, 1987. Antiamebic antibodies in homosexual men. N Engl J Med 316 :692.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Takeuchi T, Okuzawa E, Nozaki T, Kobayashi S, Mizokami M, Minoshima N, Yamamoto M, Isomura S, 1989. High seropositivity of Japanese homosexual men for amebic infection. J Infect Dis 159 :808.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Takeuchi T, Miyahira Y, Kobyash S, Nozaki T, Motta S, Matsuda L, 1990. High seropositivity for Entamoeba histolytica infection in Japanese homosexual men: further evidence for occurrence of pathogenic strains. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84 :250–251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Hung CC, Chen PJ, Hsieh SM, Wong JM, Chen MY, Chang SC, 1999. Invasive amebiasis: an emerging parasitic disease in patients with HIV infection in an endemic area of amebic infection. AIDS 13 :2421–2428.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Mitarai S, Nagai H, Satoh K, Hebisawa A, Shishido H, 2001. Amebiasis in Japanese homosexual men with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Intern Med 40 :671–675.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Ohnishi K, Kato Y, Imamura A, Fukayama M, Tsunoda T, Sakaue Y, Sakamoto M, Sagara H, 2004. Present characteristics of symptomatic Entamoeba histolytica infection in the big cities of Japan. Epidemiol Infect 132 :57–60.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Hung CC, Deng HI, Hsiao WH, Hsieh SM, Hsiao CF, Chen MY, Chang SC, Su KE, 2005. Invasive amoebiasis is an emerging parasitic infection in patients with HIV infection. Arch Intern Med 165 :409–415.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1992. 1993 Revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 41 :1–19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Haque R, Ali IM, Sack RB, Farr BM, Ramakrishnan G, Petri WA Jr, 2001. Amebiasis and mucosal IgA antibody against the Entamoeba histolytica adherence lectin in Bangladesh children. J Infect Dis 183 :1787–1793.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Haque R, Mollah NU, Ali IKM, Alam K, Eubanks A, Lyerly D, Petri WA Jr, 2000. Diagnosis of amebic liver abscess and intestinal infection with the Techlab Entamoeba histolytica II antigen detection and antibody tests. J Clin Microbiol 38 :3235–3239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Blessmann J, Ali IK, Nu PA, Dinh BT, Viet TQ, Van AL, Clark CG, Tannich E, 2003. Longitudinal study of intestinal Entamoeba histolytica infections in asymptomatic adult carriers. J Clin Microbiol 41 :4745–4750.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

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