• View in gallery

    A, Structure and nucleotide sequence of the genomic immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP) gene of Babesia caballi. The nucleotide sequence of the intron is shown. B, Western blotting analysis. a, Native B. caballi and recombinant SfBiP expressed in insect cells and culture media using monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3B2. Lane 1, native B. caballi-infected erythrocytes; lane 2, AcBiP-infected cells; lane 3, AcBiP-infected cell culture media. b, Native B. caballi-infected erythrocytes with MAb 3B2 and mouse antibodies against SfBiP. Lane 1, MAb 3B2; lane 2, mouse antibodies against SfBiP. The sizes of the molecular mass standards in kilodaltons (kDa) are shown outside the blots. SfBiP = BiP expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda cells; AcBiP = BiP expressed in a recombinant baculovirus.

  • View in gallery

    Analysis of Babesia caballi immunoglobulin binding protein by an indirect immunofluorescent test with monoclonal antibody (mAb) (a, b, and c) and mouse IgM as a negative control (d) incubated with cold methanol:acetone–fixed preparations of Babesia caballi (a, b, c, and d). Panels in the left column show staining with mAb 3B2 or mouse IgM; panels in the left of center column show Hoechst staining; panels in the right of center column show differential interference contrast (DIC); panels in the right column show overlaid images. Arrowheads indicate extracellular merozoites and the arrow indicates the early intraerythrocytic stage. Fluorescence microscopy and digital image collection were performed using an eclipse E600 fluorescence-DIC microscope (Nikon, Tokyo, Japan) and a cooled Penguin 600CL charge coupled device camera (Pixera Corporation, Los Gatos, CA) equipped with InStudio software (Pixera Corporation). This figure appears in color at www.ajtmh.org.

  • 1

    Schein E, 1985. Equine babesiosis. Ristic M, ed. Babesiosis of Domestic Animals and Man. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 197–208.

  • 2

    Dubremetz JF, Garcia-Reguet N, Conseil V, Fourmaux MN, 1998. Apical organelles and host-cell invasion by Apicomplexa. Int J Parasitol 28 :1007–1013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Blackman MJ, Bannister LH, 2001. Apical organelles of Apicomplexa: biology and isolation by subcellular fractionation. Mol Biochem Parasitol 117 :11–25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Preiser P, Kaviratne M, Khan S, Bannister L, Jarra W, 2000. The apical organelles of malaria merozoites: host cell selection, invasion, host immunity and immune evasion. Microbes Infect 2 :1461–1477.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Lindquist S, 1986. The heat shock response. Annu Rev Biochem 55 :1151–1191.

  • 6

    Schlesinger MJ, 1990. Heat shock proteins. J Biol Chem 265 :12111–12114.

  • 7

    Gething MJ, Sambrook J, 1992. Protein folding in the cell. Nature 355 :33–45.

  • 8

    Hartl FU, Martin J, Neupert W, 1992. Protein folding in the cell: the role of molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp60. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 21 :293–322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Craig EA, Gambill BD, Nelson RJ, 1993. Heat shock proteins: molecular chaperones of protein biogenesis. Microbiol Rev 57 :402–414.

  • 10

    Haas IG, Wabl M, 1983. Immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein. Nature 306 :387–389.

  • 11

    Gething MJ, 1999. Role and regulation of the ER chaperone BiP. Semin Cell Dev Biol 10 :465–472.

  • 12

    Avarazed A, Igarashi I, Kanemaru K, Hirumi K, Omata Y, Saito A, Oyamada T, Nagasawa H, Toyoda Y, Suzuki N, 1997. Improved in vitro cultivation of Babesia caballi. J Vet Med Sci 59 :479–481.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Ikadai H, Martin MD, Nagasawa H, Fujisaki K, Suzuki N, Mikami T, Kudo N, Oyamada T, Igarashi I, 2001. Analysis of a growth-promoting factor for Babesia caballi cultivation. J Parasitol 87 :1484–1486.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Ikadai H, Tamaki Y, Xuan X, Igarashi I, Kawai S, Nagasawa H, Fujisaki K, Toyoda Y, Suzuki N, Mikami T, 1999. Inhibitory effect of monoclonal antibodies on the growth of Babesia caballi. Int J Parasitol 29 :1785–1791.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Ikadai H, Xuan X, Igarashi I, Tanaka S, Kanemaru T, Nagasawa H, Fujisaki K, Suzuki N, Mikami T, 1999. Cloning and expression of a 48-kilodalton Babesia caballi merozoite rhoptry protein and potential use of the recombinant antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol 37 :3475–3480.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Hager KM, Striepen B, Tilney LG, Roos DS, 1999. The nuclear envelope serves as an intermediary between the ER and Golgi complex in the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. J Cell Sci 112 :2631–2638.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Dunn PP, Bumstead JM, Tomley FM, 1996. Primary structure of a BiP homologue in Eimeria spp. Parasitol Res 82 :566–568.

  • 18

    Kappes B, Suetterlin BW, Hofer-Warbinek R, Humar R, Franklin RM, 1993. Two major phosphoproteins of Plasmodium falciparum are heat shock proteins. Mol Biochem Parasitol 59 :83–94.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Bangs JD, Uyetake L, Brickman MJ, Balber AE, Boothroyd JC, 1993. Molecular cloning and cellular localization of a BiP homologue in Trypanosoma brucei. Divergent ER retention signals in a lower eukaryote. J Cell Sci 105 :1101–1113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Nicholson RC, Williams DB, Moran LA, 1990. An essential member of the HSP70 gene family of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is homologous to immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87 :1159–1163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Munro S, Pelham HR, 1986. An Hsp70-like protein in the ER: identity with the 78 kd glucose-regulated protein and immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein. Cell 46 :291–300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    von Heijne G, 1986. A new method for predicting signal sequence cleavage sites. Nucleic Acids Res 14 :4683–4690.

  • 23

    Freedman RB, Hirst TR, Tuite MF, 1994. Protein disulfide isomerase: building bridges in protein folding. Trends Biochem Sci 19 :331–336.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Pelham HRB, 1989. Control of protein exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. Annu Rev Cell Biol 5 :1–23.

  • 25

    Pelham HRB, 1989. Heat shock and the sorting of luminal ER proteins. EMBO J 8 :3171–3176.

  • 26

    Kumar N, Zheng H, 1992. Nucleotide sequence of a Plasmodiun falciparum stress protein with similarity to mammalian. Mol Biochem Parasitol 56 :353–356.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T, 1989. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Second edition. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  • 28

    Bangs JD, Brouch EM, Ransom DM, Roggy JL, 1996. A soluble secretory reporter system in Trypanosoma brucei. Studies on endoplasmic reticulum targeting. J Biol Chem 271 :18387–18393.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

 

 

 

 

MOLECULAR CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A PUTATIVE BINDING PROTEIN OF BABESIA CABALLI

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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Parasitology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Towada, Aomori, Japan; National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido, Japan

A composite 2,206 nucleotide DNA sequence encoding a putative immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP) was constructed from a sequence obtained from Babesia caballi cDNA library clones. The 1,962 nucleotide open reading frame predicts a 72 kD protein with extensive homology with BiPs from Apicomplexa parasites. The BiP gene had a predicted N-terminal signal sequence of 18 amino acids and a C-terminal tetrapeptide sequence (Ser-Asp-Glu-Leu) for signaling in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. The recombinant protein expressed in baculovirus showed an apparent mass of 72 kD, which is identical to that of the native B. caballi protein. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against B. caballi BiP reacted strongly with extracellular merozoites, but not in early intraerythrocytic stage. Detailed observation showed that the reaction of MAbs against pear-shaped forms was markedly irregular, with either no reaction, or reaction with one or two brightly fluorescent pear-shaped forms (two parasites) of B. caballi.

Babesia caballi is a tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasite with a life cycle that alternates between an ixodid tick host, and mammalian hosts such as horses, in which it causes economically important diseases worldwide.1 It is an obligatory intraerythrocytic equine parasite belonging to the Apicomplexa. Although members of the Apicomplexa infect different host and cell types, they have similar host cell invasion processes.2 Apicomplexa parasites invade their host cells using molecules located at the cell surface and in apical secretory organelles. These organelles are localized at the anterior end of the invasive stages and are named micronemes, rhoptries, and dense granules.24 For intraerythrocytic Plasmodium spp., when an extracellular merozoite enters an erythrocyte, it forms an initial reversible attachment that leads to reorientation of the merozoite to bring the anterior apical pole in contact with the plasma membrane of the erythrocyte.2 A tight junction is formed through which the parasite invades the erythrocyte.

The adaptation of B. caballi at different stages of its development within host cells and in the invasive process may involve heat shock or stress proteins. The ubiquitous 70 kD heat shock protein (HSP70) family comprises a diverse group of proteins found in a large number of different organisms.5,6 The HSP70 family performs an essential molecular chaperone role for the intracellular trafficking of proteins and has other diverse cellular functions.79 The immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP) is a member of the HSP70 family of molecular chaperones in eukaryotic cells, and is located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).10,11 It is an abundant and essential protein involved in polypeptide translocation, and it also assists in the folding and assembly of newly synthesized secreted or membrane proteins.11 However, BiP has not yet been characterized in B. caballi. Therefore, we studied the complete cDNA sequence of a novel BiP gene isolated from B. caballi to characterize the BiP gene and its product.

United States Department of Agriculture strains of B. caballi were maintained in purified horse erythrocytes in continuous cultures as previously described.12,13 A B. caballi merozoite cDNA library constructed in the λZAP II (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA) was screened with anti-B. caballi mouse serum according to the method of according to the method of Ikadai and others.14,15 Phagemids were excised from the clones and sequencing of the DNA insert of the pBluescript SK (+) plasmid was performed on both strands using the Dye Terminator Cycle Sequencing Kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) with six primers: T3 (5′-AATTAACCCTCAC-TAAAGGG-3′), T7 (5′-GTAATACGACTCACTATAGG-GC-3′), F1 (5′-CGAAATGGGAAACCGTATCA-3′), F2 (5′-AACATCCTGGTGTACGATCT-3′), F3 (5′-CCCCA-AGATCAGGAAAATGA-3′), and F4 (5′-GAAGCGCAA-CATCGTCATTA-3′). Electrophoresis was carried out on an ABI PRISM 310 DNA sequencer (Applied Biosystems). The sequencing analysis was performed using the computer program GENETYX-MAC version 10.1 (Software Development, Tokyo, Japan).

Several positive clones were obtained and two cDNA clones showed the BiP homolog sequence (GenBank accession no. AB159783). Analysis of the cDNA insert sequence showed that the constructed 2,206 nucleotide fragment encoded BiP with a single open reading frame (ORF) of 1,962 nucleotides starting with methionine at position 189. The ORF encoded a polypeptide of 654 amino acid residues with a size of 72.1 kD. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence was performed using the GenBank database and the FASTA program (European Molecular Biology Organization Institute-European Bioinformatics Institute, Heidelberg, Germany). The B. caballi ORF encoded a protein of 654 amino acids that showed 64.3% identity with BiP of Toxoplasma gondii16 (GenBank accession no. AF110397), 64.8% identity with BiP of Eimeria tenella17 (GenBank accession no. Z66492), 62.9% identity with the heat shock protein of Plasmodium falciparum18 (GenBank accession no. X69121), 56.1% identity with BiP of Trypanosoma brucei19 (GenBank accession no. L14477), 55.5% identity with BiP of Saccharomyces cerevisiae20 (GenBank accession no. M31006), and 62.3% identity with BiP of Rattus norvegicus21 (GenBank accession no. M14050).

Using the algorithm described by von Heijne,22 we predicted that the B. caballi BiP signal sequence was the first 18 N-terminal amino acids (1MYAKKLVTALVTFLFGQA18) of the peptide. The C-terminal peptides Ser-Asp-Glu-Leu (651SDEL654) of the putative B. caballi BiP may function as an anchor to the ER. In T. gondii and E. tenella, the ER-retention signals are C-terminal peptides composed of Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) and His-Asp-Glu-Leu (HDEL), respectively.16,17,2325 Moreover, the C-terminal peptides in P. falciparum are SDEL.18,26 The results establish the generality of the XDEL targeting signal throughout the broad range of eukaryotic phylogenetics. Presumably, this conservation extends to the mechanism that mediates ER localization.

DNA was extracted from B. caballi and horse blood by a standard method.27 Babesia caballi genomic DNA was amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with oligonucleotide primers bipF (5′-AAAGTGTGTGTTGTGCAGAC-3′) and bipR (5′-ATTAGACTGGCTTACAGCTC-3′). The positions of the two primers on the cDNA were nucleotides 70–89 and 2,164–2,145, respectively. The resulting DNA fragment was approximately 2,100 nucleotides. Moreover, horse genomic DNA was not amplified by the PCR with these two primers. The amplified DNA was cloned into a pCR 2.1-TOPO vector using the TOPO TA Cloning Kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). The plasmid containing the gene was isolated and subjected to DNA sequence analysis. The completed DNA sequence of the BiP gene was analyzed and contained a single intron of 36 nucleotides (Figure 1A).

Recombinant BiP was expressed in insect cells by using a baculovirus expression system. The BiP gene was amplified by PCR with a set of oligonucleotide primers: bipF-orf, which included the ATG initiation codon (5′-GCAACATGTACG-CCAAAAAG-3′) and Age-bipR, which included the Age I restriction enzyme site (5′-ATACCGGTCAGCTCGTC-GCTGTA-3′). This amplified DNA was ligated into the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) with the transfer vector pBlueBac4.5/V5-His TOPO TA expression kit (Invitrogen), and digested with Age I and self-ligated. The resulting plasmid was designated pBlueBac4.5/V5-His-BiP, and was sequenced using these amplification primers. Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells were co-transfected with the recombinant transfer vector pBlueBac4.5/V5-His-BiP and linear AcNPV Bac-N-Blue DNA (Invitrogen) using Cellfectin reagent (Invitrogen). After six days of incubation at 27°C, recombinant plaques were purified using a blue color selection system in which 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-galactosidase was present in the agarose overlay. Positive blue plaques were selected, and recombinant baculovirus (AcBiP) was obtained after three cycles of purification.

The Sf9 insect cells were infected with the recombinant baculovirus AcBiP in protein-free Sf-900 medium (Invitrogen) at a multiplicity of infection of 5 plaque-forming units/cell. At four days post-infection, infected cells (SfBiP) were harvested and washed three times with cold phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Infected cells (5 × 106) in Freud’s complete adjuvant (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI) were injected intraperitoneally into seven-week old BALB/c mice. The same antigen in Freud’s incomplete adjuvant (Difco Laboratories) was injected intraperitoneally into the mice on day 14 and day 28. Sera were collected from immunized mice 10 days after the last immunization.

Development of monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3B2 for B. caballi BiP was conducted in this study as described previously.14 Hybridoma supernatants were screened by an indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT). A mouse MAb isotyping kit (Amersham Bioscience, Branchburg, NJ) was used to classify MAb 3B2 as an IgM antibody. The Sf9 cells infected with AcBiP were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting14 to determine whether the SfBiP protein was expressed. Cell lysate and culture media were tested using Western blotting with MAb 3B2. A single band of SfBiP protein was observed in the cell lysate, and the molecular mass of the SfBiP protein was the same as that of native B. caballi 72 kD protein by western blotting (Figure 1B). This indicates that the ORF observed in the BiP gene was complete. In contrast, no band was detected in the culture medium or uninfected Sf9 cells. Moreover, antibodies against SfBiP, which were obtained from mice, recognized only the 72 kD native protein, as observed with MAb 3B2. These results indicate that the antibodies against SfBiP and MAb 3B2 reacted with the same B. caballi 72 kD protein.

The localization of BiP was examined using thin films of B. caballi-infected erythrocytes and extracellular merozoites. Thin blood smear films of cultured B. caballi- infected erythrocytes were fixed in cold methanol:acetone (1:1) for 20 minutes and incubated in undiluted culture supernatant containing MAb 3B2 or mouse antibodies against SfBiP at 37°C for one hour. Slides were washed with PBS for 10 minutes and incubated with fluorescein-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgM plus IgG plus IgA (heavy and light chains) (Southern Biotechnology, Birmingham, AL) with 5 μg/mL of Hoechst 33258 (Polysciences, Warrington, PA) at 37°C for one hour. The slides were then washed with PBS for 10 minutes and mounted in 90% glycerol for microscopic observation. Different patterns of reactivity with MAb 3B2 were observed in the cold methanol:acetone–fixed preparations of B. caballi in the IFAT (Figure 2). Monoclonal antibody 3B2 reacted strongly with extracellular merozoites, but did not react with the early intraerythrocytic stage and horse erythrocytes. Detailed observation showed that the reactivity of the MAb against pear-shaped forms was markedly irregular, with either no reactivity or reactivity with one or two brightly fluorescent pear-shaped forms (two parasites) (Figure 2). This result suggests that the maturation of merozoites after binary fission may not be synchronous, and that the rate of maturation may differ among individual merozoites.

In co-precipitation experiments, BiP transiently associates with newly synthesized secretory proteins, including variant surface glycoproteins, which confirm its role as a molecular chaperone in T. brucei.28 Further characterization of the ba-besial secretory pathway is required for complete understanding of the cell biology of these important pathogenic organisms. This study provides a foundation for future studies of these proteins, particularly those concerned with the development of secretory reporters.

In conclusion, we report the complete cDNA sequence of a novel BiP gene isolated from B. caballi in this study. The high degree of homology with BiP proteins from other species suggests that the B. caballi BiP is localized in the ER of this protozoan, where it may play an important role in polypeptide translocation into and through the ER by ensuring that secretory or membrane proteins are correctly folded and assembled.

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

A, Structure and nucleotide sequence of the genomic immunoglobulin-binding protein (BiP) gene of Babesia caballi. The nucleotide sequence of the intron is shown. B, Western blotting analysis. a, Native B. caballi and recombinant SfBiP expressed in insect cells and culture media using monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3B2. Lane 1, native B. caballi-infected erythrocytes; lane 2, AcBiP-infected cells; lane 3, AcBiP-infected cell culture media. b, Native B. caballi-infected erythrocytes with MAb 3B2 and mouse antibodies against SfBiP. Lane 1, MAb 3B2; lane 2, mouse antibodies against SfBiP. The sizes of the molecular mass standards in kilodaltons (kDa) are shown outside the blots. SfBiP = BiP expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda cells; AcBiP = BiP expressed in a recombinant baculovirus.

Citation: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Am J Trop Med Hyg 73, 6; 10.4269/ajtmh.2005.73.1135

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Analysis of Babesia caballi immunoglobulin binding protein by an indirect immunofluorescent test with monoclonal antibody (mAb) (a, b, and c) and mouse IgM as a negative control (d) incubated with cold methanol:acetone–fixed preparations of Babesia caballi (a, b, c, and d). Panels in the left column show staining with mAb 3B2 or mouse IgM; panels in the left of center column show Hoechst staining; panels in the right of center column show differential interference contrast (DIC); panels in the right column show overlaid images. Arrowheads indicate extracellular merozoites and the arrow indicates the early intraerythrocytic stage. Fluorescence microscopy and digital image collection were performed using an eclipse E600 fluorescence-DIC microscope (Nikon, Tokyo, Japan) and a cooled Penguin 600CL charge coupled device camera (Pixera Corporation, Los Gatos, CA) equipped with InStudio software (Pixera Corporation). This figure appears in color at www.ajtmh.org.

Citation: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Am J Trop Med Hyg 73, 6; 10.4269/ajtmh.2005.73.1135

*

Address correspondence to Hiromi Ikadai, Department of Veterinary Parasitology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Towada, Aomori 034-8628, Japan. E-mail: ikadai@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp

Authors’ addresses: Hiromi Ikadai, Yumi Takamatsu, Ryoko Takashiro, Ayaka Segawa, Noboru Kudo, and Takashi Oyamada, Department of Veterinary Parasitology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Towada, Aomori 034-8628, Japan. Ikuo Igarashi, National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan.

Financial support: This study was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research and Young Scientists from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and the Kitasato University Research Grant for Young Researchers.

REFERENCES

  • 1

    Schein E, 1985. Equine babesiosis. Ristic M, ed. Babesiosis of Domestic Animals and Man. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 197–208.

  • 2

    Dubremetz JF, Garcia-Reguet N, Conseil V, Fourmaux MN, 1998. Apical organelles and host-cell invasion by Apicomplexa. Int J Parasitol 28 :1007–1013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Blackman MJ, Bannister LH, 2001. Apical organelles of Apicomplexa: biology and isolation by subcellular fractionation. Mol Biochem Parasitol 117 :11–25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Preiser P, Kaviratne M, Khan S, Bannister L, Jarra W, 2000. The apical organelles of malaria merozoites: host cell selection, invasion, host immunity and immune evasion. Microbes Infect 2 :1461–1477.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Lindquist S, 1986. The heat shock response. Annu Rev Biochem 55 :1151–1191.

  • 6

    Schlesinger MJ, 1990. Heat shock proteins. J Biol Chem 265 :12111–12114.

  • 7

    Gething MJ, Sambrook J, 1992. Protein folding in the cell. Nature 355 :33–45.

  • 8

    Hartl FU, Martin J, Neupert W, 1992. Protein folding in the cell: the role of molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp60. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 21 :293–322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Craig EA, Gambill BD, Nelson RJ, 1993. Heat shock proteins: molecular chaperones of protein biogenesis. Microbiol Rev 57 :402–414.

  • 10

    Haas IG, Wabl M, 1983. Immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein. Nature 306 :387–389.

  • 11

    Gething MJ, 1999. Role and regulation of the ER chaperone BiP. Semin Cell Dev Biol 10 :465–472.

  • 12

    Avarazed A, Igarashi I, Kanemaru K, Hirumi K, Omata Y, Saito A, Oyamada T, Nagasawa H, Toyoda Y, Suzuki N, 1997. Improved in vitro cultivation of Babesia caballi. J Vet Med Sci 59 :479–481.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Ikadai H, Martin MD, Nagasawa H, Fujisaki K, Suzuki N, Mikami T, Kudo N, Oyamada T, Igarashi I, 2001. Analysis of a growth-promoting factor for Babesia caballi cultivation. J Parasitol 87 :1484–1486.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Ikadai H, Tamaki Y, Xuan X, Igarashi I, Kawai S, Nagasawa H, Fujisaki K, Toyoda Y, Suzuki N, Mikami T, 1999. Inhibitory effect of monoclonal antibodies on the growth of Babesia caballi. Int J Parasitol 29 :1785–1791.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Ikadai H, Xuan X, Igarashi I, Tanaka S, Kanemaru T, Nagasawa H, Fujisaki K, Suzuki N, Mikami T, 1999. Cloning and expression of a 48-kilodalton Babesia caballi merozoite rhoptry protein and potential use of the recombinant antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol 37 :3475–3480.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Hager KM, Striepen B, Tilney LG, Roos DS, 1999. The nuclear envelope serves as an intermediary between the ER and Golgi complex in the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. J Cell Sci 112 :2631–2638.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Dunn PP, Bumstead JM, Tomley FM, 1996. Primary structure of a BiP homologue in Eimeria spp. Parasitol Res 82 :566–568.

  • 18

    Kappes B, Suetterlin BW, Hofer-Warbinek R, Humar R, Franklin RM, 1993. Two major phosphoproteins of Plasmodium falciparum are heat shock proteins. Mol Biochem Parasitol 59 :83–94.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Bangs JD, Uyetake L, Brickman MJ, Balber AE, Boothroyd JC, 1993. Molecular cloning and cellular localization of a BiP homologue in Trypanosoma brucei. Divergent ER retention signals in a lower eukaryote. J Cell Sci 105 :1101–1113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Nicholson RC, Williams DB, Moran LA, 1990. An essential member of the HSP70 gene family of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is homologous to immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87 :1159–1163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Munro S, Pelham HR, 1986. An Hsp70-like protein in the ER: identity with the 78 kd glucose-regulated protein and immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein. Cell 46 :291–300.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    von Heijne G, 1986. A new method for predicting signal sequence cleavage sites. Nucleic Acids Res 14 :4683–4690.

  • 23

    Freedman RB, Hirst TR, Tuite MF, 1994. Protein disulfide isomerase: building bridges in protein folding. Trends Biochem Sci 19 :331–336.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Pelham HRB, 1989. Control of protein exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. Annu Rev Cell Biol 5 :1–23.

  • 25

    Pelham HRB, 1989. Heat shock and the sorting of luminal ER proteins. EMBO J 8 :3171–3176.

  • 26

    Kumar N, Zheng H, 1992. Nucleotide sequence of a Plasmodiun falciparum stress protein with similarity to mammalian. Mol Biochem Parasitol 56 :353–356.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Sambrook J, Fritsch EF, Maniatis T, 1989. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. Second edition. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  • 28

    Bangs JD, Brouch EM, Ransom DM, Roggy JL, 1996. A soluble secretory reporter system in Trypanosoma brucei. Studies on endoplasmic reticulum targeting. J Biol Chem 271 :18387–18393.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Author Notes

Reprint requests: Hiromi Ikadai, Department of Veterinary Parasitology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Towada, Aomori 034-8628, Japan, Telephone: 81-176-23-4371, Fax: 81-176-25-0165, E-mail: ikadai@vmas.kitasato-u.ac.jp.
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