Authors’ addresses: A. C. Kotze and J. O’Grady, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Livestock Industries, St. Lucia, Queensland 4067, Australia. S. Clifford and J. M. Behnke, School of Biological Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom. J. S. McCarthy, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Centre for International and Tropical Health and Nutrition, The University of Queensland, Herston Road, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia, Telephone: 61-7-3845-3796, Fax: 61-7-3362-0104, E-mail:
Acknowledgments: We thank Absalom Mai, Melinda Susapu, and Dr. Moses Bockarie (Papua New Guinea Institute for Medical Research, Madang, Papua New Guinea) and Will Kastens and Dr. James Kazura (Case Western Reserve University Center of Global Health and Disease, Cleveland, OH) for their assistance in enabling access to the human clinical samples used to develop the pilot assay, and Dr. Glen Coleman (Veterinary School of the University of Queensland) for undertaking parasitologic analysis on the canine fecal samples.
Financial support: This work was supported in part by grants from GlaxoSmithKline and from the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR).
Simeon DT, Grantham-McGregor SM, Callender JE, Wong MS, 1995. Treatment of Trichuris trichiura infections improves growth, spelling scores and school attendance in some children. J Nutr 125 :1875–1883.
Nokes C, Grantham-McGregor SM, Sawyer AW, Cooper ES, Robinson BA, Bundy DA, 1992. Moderate to heavy infections of Trichuris trichiura affect cognitive function in Jamaican school children. Parasitology 104 :539–547.
Winnen M, Plaisier AP, Alley ES, Nagelkerke NJ, van Oortmarssen G, Boatin BA, Habbema JD, 2002. Can ivermectin mass treatments eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa? Bull World Health Organ 80 :384–391.
Albonico M, Wright V, Bickle Q, 2004. Molecular analysis of the beta-tubulin gene of human hookworms as a basis for possible benzimidazole resistance on Pemba Island. Mol Biochem Parasitol 134 :281–284.
Reynoldson JA, Behnke JM, Pallant LJ, Macnish MG, Gilbert F, Giles S, Spargo RJ, Thompson RC, 1997. Failure of pyrantel in treatment of human hookworm infections (Ancylostoma duodenale) in the Kimberley region of northwest Australia. Acta Trop 68: 301–312.
De Clercq D, Sacko M, Behnke J, Gilbert F, Dorny P, Vercruysse J, 1997. Failure of mebendazole in treatment of human hookworm infections in the southern region of Mali. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57 :25–30.
Geerts S, Gryseels B, 2000. Drug resistance in human helminths: current situation and lessons from livestock. Clin Microbiol Rev 13 :207–222.
Varady M, Corba J, 1999. Comparison of six in vitro tests in determining benzimidazole and levamisole resistance in Haemonchus contortus and Ostertagia circumcincta of sheep. Vet Parasitol 80 :239–249.
Palmer D, Mitchell T, Lyon J, 1998. Laboratory experiences with Drenchrite. Watts T, ed. Australian Sheep Veterinary Society AVA Conference. Sydney, 1–9.
Folz SD, Pax RA, Thomas EM, Bennett JL, Lee BL, Condor GA, 1987. Motility response of several benzimidazole-resistant Haemonchus contortus larvae to several anthelmintics. Proc Helminthol Soc Wash 54 :249–253.
Gill JH, Redwin JM, van Wyk JA, Lacey E, 1991. Detection of resistance to ivermectin in Haemonchus contortus.Int J Parasitol 21 :771–776.
Behnke JM, Wells C, Brown J, 1986. An improved technique for experimental infections with skin penetrating nematode larvae (Necator americanus). Int J Parasitol 16 :461–464.
Garside P, Behnke JM, 1989. Ancylostoma ceylanicum in the hamster: observations on the host-parasite relationship during primary infection. Parasitology 98 :283–289.
Quinnell RJ, Griffin J, Nowell MA, Raiko A, Pritchard DI, 2001. Predisposition to hookworm infection in Papua New Guinea. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 :139–142.
Garcia LS, 2001. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology Press.
Viney ME, Matthews BE, Walliker D, 1992. On the biological and biochemical nature of cloned populations of Strongyloides ratti.J Helminthol 66 :45–52.
Satou T, Koga M, Koike K, Tada I, Nikaido T, 2001. Nematocidal activities of thiabendazole and ivermectin against the larvae of Strongyloides ratti and S. venezuelensis.Vet Parasitol 99 :311–322.
Behnke JM, Rose R, Garside P, 1993. Sensitivity to ivermectin and pyrantel of Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Necator americanus.Int J Parasitol 23 :945–952.
Richards JC, Behnke JM, Duce IR, 1995. In vitro studies on the relative sensitivity to ivermectin of Necator americanus and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.Int J Parasitol 25 :1185–1191.
Colglazier ML, Kates KC, Enzie FD, 1975. Cross-resistance to other anthelmintics in an experimentally produced cambendazole-resistant strain of Haemonchus contortus in lambs. J Parasitol 61 :778–779.
Martin PJ, Anderson N, Jarrett RG, 1985. Resistance to benzimidazole anthelmintics in field strains of Ostertagia and Nematodirus in sheep.Aust Vet J 62 :38–43.
Elard L, Cabaret J, Humbert JF, 1999. PCR diagnosis of benzimidazole-susceptibility or -resistance in natural populations of the small ruminant parasite, Teladorsagia circumcincta.Vet Parasitol 80 :231–237.
Kwa MS, Veenstra JG, Roos MH, 1994. Benzimidazole resistance in Haemonchus contortus is correlated with a conserved mutation at amino acid 200 in beta-tubulin isotype 1. Mol Biochem Parasitol 63 :299–303.