Authors’ addresses: Pia Malaney Center for International Development, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, Telephone: 617 496-0744, Fax: 617-496-8753, E-mail:
Acknowledgments: We are grateful to Eric R. Weinstein for extensive discussions and valuable insights. This article also benefited greatly from the ongoing support and uncompromising clarity of Dr. Robert W. Snow.
Financial support: This work was carried out under grant #17408 from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
McCarthy D, Wolf H, Wu Y, 2000. Malaria and Growth. Policy Research Working Paper 2303. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Acemoglu D, Johnson S, Robinson J, 2001. Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of the Modern World Income Distribution. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper No. w8460
Rodrik D, Subramanian A, Trebbi F, 2002. Institutions Rule: The Primacy of Institutions over Geography and Integration in Economic Development. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper No. w9305
Ettling MB, Chitsulo L, McFarland D, 1993. Malawi: The Economic Impact of Malaria on Low Income Households. Arlington, VA: Vector Biology and Control Project. Report No.82239.
Cropper ML, Lampietti JA, Haile M, Poulos C, Whittington D, 1999. The Value of Preventing Malaria in Tigray, Ethiopia. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Bhombore SR, Worth CB, Nanjundiah KS, 1952. A survey of the economic status of villagers in a malarious irrigated tract in Mysore state, India, before and after DDT residual insecticidal spraying. Indian J Malariol 6 :355–366.
Audibert M, 1986. Agricultural non-wage production and health status: A case-study in a tropical environment. J Develop Econ 24 :275–291.
Utzinger J, Tozan Y, Domani F, Singer B, 2001. The economic payoffs of malaria control in the Zambian Copper Belt: 1930–1950. Trop Med Int Health 7 :657–677.
Holding PA, Snow RW, 2001. Impact of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on performance and learning: review of the evidence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64 (Suppl):68–75
Serouri AW, Grantham-McGregor SM, Greenwood B, Costello A, 2000. Impact of asymptomatic malaria parasitaemia on cognitive function and school achievement of schoolchildren in the Yemen Republic. Parasitology 121 :337–345.
McKay H, Sinisterra L, McKay A, Gomez H, Lloreda P, 1978. Improving cognitive ability in chronically deprived children. Science 200 :270–278.
Grantham-McGregor SM, Powell CA, Walker SP, Himes JH, 1991. Nutritional supplementation, psychosocial stimulation, and mental development of stunted children: the Jamaican study. Lancet 338 :1–5.
Rowland MG, Cole TJ, Whitehead RG, 1977. A quantitative study into the role of infection in determining nutritional status in Gambian village children. Br J Nutr 37 :441–450.
Snow RW, Molyneux CS, Njeru EK, Omumbo J, Nevill CG, Muniu E, Marsh K, 1997. The effects of malaria control on nutritional status in infancy. Acta Trop 65 :1–10.
Shiff C, Checkley W, Winch P, Premji Z, Minjas J, Lubega P, 1996. Changes in weight gain and anaemia attributable to malaria in Tanzanian children living under holoendemic conditions. Trans R Soc Trop Med 90 :262–265.
Hedberg K, Shaffer N, Davachi F, Hightower A, Lyamba B, Paluku KM, Nguyen-Dinh P, Breman JG, 1993. Plasmodium falciparum-associated anemia in children at a large urban hospital in Zaire. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48 :365–371.
Scholz BD, Gross R, Schultink W, Sastroamidjojo S, 1997. Anaemia is associated with reduced productivity of women workers even in less-physically-strenuous tasks. Br J Nutr 77 :47–57.
Basta SS, Soekirman KD, Karyadi D, Scrimshaw NS, 1979. Iron deficiency anemia and the productivity of adult males in Indonesia. Am J Clin Nutr 32 :916–925.
Brahmbhatt H, Kigozi G, Wabwire-Mangen F, Serwadda D, Sewakambo N, Lutalo T, Wawer M, Abramowsky C, Sullivan D, Gray R, 2003. The effects of placental malaria on mother-to-child HIV transmission in Rakai, Uganda. AIDS 17 :2539–2542.