• View in gallery

    Global distribution (Robinson projection) of dominant or potentially important malaria vectors.

  • View in gallery

    Distribution (Robinson projection) of the actual and potential stability of malaria transmission based on regionally dominant vector mosquitoes and a 0.5° gridded temperature and precipitation data set.

  • 1

    WHO, 1997. World malaria situation in 1994. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 72 :269–276.

  • 2

    Curtin PD, 1989. Death by Migration: Europe’s Encounter with the Tropical World in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • 3

    Curtin PD, 1998. Disease and Empire: The Health of European troops in the Conquest of Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • 4

    Acemoglu D, Johnson S, Robinson JA, 2000. The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper No. 7771.

  • 5

    Craig MH, Snow RW, le Sueur D, 1999. A climate-based distribution model of malaria transmission in Africa. Parasitol Today 15 :105–111.

  • 6

    Kleinschmidt I, Clarke GPY, Bagayoko M, Craig MH, le Sueur D, 2000. A spatial statistical approach to malaria mapping. Int J Epidemiol 29 :355–361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    MacDonald G, 1952. The analysis of equilibrium in malaria. Trop Dis Bull 49 :813–829.

  • 8

    Boyd MF, 1926. Studies of the epidemiology of malaria in the coastal lowlands of Brazil, made before and after execution of control measures. Am J Hyg Monogr 5.

  • 9

    Komp WHW, 1948. The anopheline vectors of malaria of the world. Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Tropical Medicine. Malaria. Washington, DC: May 10–18, 1948, 644–655.

  • 10

    Metselaar D, Van Theil PM, 1959. Classification of malaria. Trop Geogr Malaria 11 :157–161.

  • 11

    Molineaux L, 1988. The epidemiology of human malaria as an explanation of its distribution, including some implications for its control. Wernsdorfer WH, McGregor I, eds. Principles and Practice of Malariology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 913–998.

  • 12

    Antonio-Nkondjio C, Awono-Ambene P, Toto JC, Meunier JY, Zebaze-Kemleu S, Nyambam R, Wondji CS, Tchuinkam T, Fontenille D, 2002. High malaria transmission intensity in a village close to Yaounde, the capital city of Cameroon. J Med Entomol 39 :350–355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Awolola TS, Okwa O, Hunt RH, Ogunrinade AF, Coetzee M, 2002. Dynamics of the malaria-vector populations in coastal Lagos, south-western Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 :75–82.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Bockarie MJ, Service MW, Barnish G, Maude GH, Greenwood BM, 1994. Malaria in a rural area of Sierra Leone. III. Vector ecology and disease transmission. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 88 :251–262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Boudin C, Lyannaz J, Bosseno MF, Carnevale P, Ambroise-Thomas P, 1991. Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum in a rice field and a savanna area in Burkina Faso: seasonal fluctuations of gametocytemia and malarial infectivity. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 85 :377–385.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Coetzee M, Craig MH, le Sueur D, 2000. Mapping the distribution of members of the Anopheles gambiae complex in Africa and adjacent islands. Parasitol Today 16 :74–77.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Gillies MT, De Meillon B, 1968. The Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara (Ethiopian Zoogeographical Region). Johannesburg, South Africa: South African Insitute of Medical Research, Publication No. 54.

  • 18

    Lindsay SW, Parson L, Thomas CJ, 1998. Mapping the ranges and relative abundance of the two principal African malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis, using climate data. Proc R Soc London B Biol Sci 265 :847–854.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Omumbo JA, Ouma J, Rapuoda B, Craig MH, le Sueur D, Snow RW, 1997. Mapping malaria transmission intensity using geographical information systems (GIS); an example from Kenya. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92 :7–21.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Petrarca V, Beier JC, Onyango F, Koros J, Asiago C, Koech DK, Roberts CR, 1991. Species composition of the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae) at two sites in western Kenya. J Med Entomol 28 :307–313.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Shililu JI, Maier WA, Seitz HM, Orago AS, 1998. Seasonal density, sporozoite rates and entomological inoculation rates of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus in a high-altitude sugar cane growing zone in Western Kenya. Trop Med Int Health 3 :706–710.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Symes CB, 1930. Anophelines in Kenya. Kenya East Afr Med J 7 :2.

  • 23

    White GB, 1974. Anopheles gambiae Complex and disease transmission in Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 68 :278–298.

  • 24

    Berti J, Zimmerman R, Amarista J, 1993. Adult abundance, biting behavior and parity of Anopheles aquasalis Curry 1932 in two malarious areas of Sucre State, Venezuela. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 88 :363–369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Branquinho MS, Araujo MS, Natal D, Marrelli MT, Rocha RM, Taveira FA, Kloetzel JK, 1996. Anopheles oswaldoi, a potential malaria vector in Acre, Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90 :233.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Carme B, Venturin C, 1999. Malaria in the Americas. Med Trop (Mars) 59 :298–302.

  • 27

    Elliott R, 1968. Studies on man-vector contact in some malarious areas in Colombia. Bull World Health Organ 38 :239–253.

  • 28

    Fajardo P, Alzate A, 1987. Anopheles nuneztovari como vector de malaria en el Bajo Calima, Buenaventura. Colombia Med 18 :14–18.

  • 29

    Forattini OP, Kakitani I, Santos RL, Ueno HM, Kobayashi KM, 1999. Role of Anopheles (Kerteszia) bellator as malaria vector in southeastern Brazil (Diptera:Culicidae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 94 :715–718.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Gabaldon A, 1972. Difficulties confronting malaria eradication. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21 :634–639.

  • 31

    Gabaldon A, 1981. Anopheles nuneztovari: importante vector y agente de malaria refractaria en Venezuela. Bol Dir Malariol Saneamiento Ambiental 21 :28–38.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Hackett LW, 1945. The malaria of the Andean region of South America. Rev Inst Salubridad Enfermedades Trop 6 :239–252.

  • 33

    Hayes JG, Calderon G, Falcon R, Zambrano V, 1987. Newly incriminated vectors of human malaria parasites in Junin Department, Peru. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 3 :418–422.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Hudson JE, 1984. Anopheles darlingi Root in the Suriname rain forest. Bull Entomol Res 74 :129–142.

  • 35

    Laubach HE, Validum L, Bonilla JA, Agar A, Cummings R, Mitchell C, Cuadrado RR, Palmer CJ, 2001. Identification of Anopheles aquasalis as a possible vector of malaria in Guyana, South America. West Ind Med J 50 :319–321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Lounibos LP, Conn JE, 2000. Malaria vector heterogeneity in South America. Am Entomol 46 :238–249.

  • 37

    Lounibos LP, Conn JE, 1991. Fecundity, parity and adult feeding relationships among Nyssorhynchus malaria vectors from Venezuela. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 86 :57–66.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    Lourenco-de-Oliveira R, Heyden R, 1986. Alguns aspectos da ecologia dos mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) de uma area de planicie (Granjas Calabria), em Jacarepagua Rio de Janeiro. IV. Preferencias alimentares quanto ao hospedeiro e frequencia domiciliar. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 81 :15–27.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    Oliveira-Pereira YN, Rebelo JM, 2000. Anopheles species in the municipality of Pinheiro (Maranhao), endemic area of malaria. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 33 :443–450.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    Panday RS, 1977. Anopheles nuneztovari and malaria transmission in Surinam. Mosq News 37 :728–737.

  • 41

    Rejmankova E, Roberts DR, Harbach RE, Pecor J, Peyton EL, Manguin S, Krieg R, Polanco J, Legters LJ, 1993. Environmental and regional determinants of Anopheles (Diptera:Culicidae) larval distribution in Belize, Central America. Environ Entomol 22 :978–992.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    Ribeiro H, Ramos HC, Pires CA, 1990. Sobre os vectores de malaria em Sao Tome e Principe: Garcia de Orta. Ser Zool 15 :135–152.

  • 43

    Roberts DR, Chan O, Pecor J, Rejmankova E, Manguin S, Polanco J, Legters LJ, 1993. Preliminary observations on the changing roles of malaria vectors in Southern Belize. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 9 :456–459.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44

    Rosa-Freitas MG, Lourenco-de-Oliveira R, de Carvalho-Pinto CJ, Flores-Mendoza C, Fernandes Silva-do-Nascimento T, 1998. Anopheline species complexes in Brazil. Current knowledge of those related to malaria transmission. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 93 :651–655.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45

    Rozendaal JA, 1987. Observations on the biology and behaviour of anophelines in the Suriname rainforest with special reference to Anopheles darlingi Root. Cah ORSTOM Ser Entomol Med Parasitol 25 :33–43.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46

    Rubio Y, 1991. Biology of Anopheles nuneztovari and Its Role in Malaria Transmission. Final Report. MVR-VE-1-87-81. Washington, DC: National Academy of Science.

  • 47

    Rubio-Palis Y, Curtis CF, 1992. Biting and resting behaviour of anophelines in western Venezuela and implications for control of malaria transmission. Med Vet Entomol 6 :325–334.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48

    Rubio-Palis Y, Zimmerman RH, 1997. Ecoregional classification of malaria vectors in the Neotropics. J Med Entomol 34 :499–510.

  • 49

    Rubio-Palis Y, 1994. Variation of the vectorial capacity of some anophelines in western Venezuela. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50 :420–424.

  • 50

    Scorza JV, Tallaferra E, Rubiano H, 1976. Comportamiento y susceptibilidad de Anopheles nuneztovari Gabaldon, 1940 a la infeccion con Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax. Bol Direc Malariol San Amb 16 :129–136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51

    Tadei WP, Thatcher BD, Santos JMM, Scarpassa VM, Rodrigues IB, Rafael MS, 1998. Ecologic observations on anopheline vectors of malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 :325–335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52

    Tadei WP, Thatchet BD, 2000. Malaria vectors in the Brazilian Amazon: Anopheles of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 42 :87–94.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53

    Zimmerman RH, 1992. Ecology of malaria vectors in the Americas and future direction. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 87 :371–383.

  • 54

    Abdul-Hab JK, 1958. The seasonal occurrence of Anopheles superpictus Grassi and A. sacharovi Favre in Suleimaniya Liwa, north Iraq. Bull Endemic Dis (Baghdad) 2 :152–165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55

    Amr Z, Al-Khalili Y, Arbaji A, 1997. Larval mosquitoes collected from northern Jordan and the Jordan Valley. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 13 :375–378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56

    De Zulueta J, Mur DA, 1972. Malaria eradication in the Near East. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 66 :679–696.

  • 57

    El Said S, Beier JC, Kenawy MA, Morsy ZS, Merdan AI, 1986. Anopheles population dynamics in two malaria endemic villages in Faiyum Governorate, Egypt. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2 :158–163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58

    Eshgy N, Motabar M, Javadian E, Manoutcheri AV, 1976. Biological features of Anopheles fluviatilis and its role in the transmission of malaria in Iran. Trop Geogr Med 28 :41–44.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59

    Eshgy N, 1977. Anopheles multicolor Cambouliu, and its role in the transmission of malaria in Iran. J Entomol Soc Iran 4 :87–88.

  • 60

    Halawani A, Shawarby AA, 1957. Malaria in Egypt. J Egypt Med Assoc 40 :753–792.

  • 61

    Kasap M, 1986. Seasonal variation in populations of Anopheles maculipennis, Anopheles claviger and Culex pipiens in Turkey. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2 :478–481.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62

    Lumsden W, Yofe J, 1950. Anophelism and malaria in Trans Jordan and in the neighboring parts of Palestine and Syria. Leeson H, Lumsden W, Macan T, Yofe J, eds. Anopheles and Malaria in the Near East. London: Lewis and Co. Ltd., 9–108.

  • 63

    Manouchehri AV, Javadian E, Eshighy N, Motabar M, 1976. Ecology of Anopheles stephensi Liston in southern Iran. Trop Geogr Med 28 :228–232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64

    Manouchehri AV, Zaim M, Emadi AM, 1992. A review of malaria in Iran, 1975–1990. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 8 :381–385.

  • 65

    Margalit J, Tahori AS, 1974. An annotated list of mosquitoes in Israel. Isr J Entomol 9 :77–91.

  • 66

    Postiglione M, Bruno Smiragliam C, Lavagnino A, Gokberk C, Ramsdale C, 1970. A preliminary note on the occurrence in Turkey of the subalpinus form of the A. maculipennis complex. Riv Parassitol 31 :155–158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67

    Pringle G, 1954. The identification of the adult anopheline mosquitoes of Iraq and neighboring territories. Bull Endemic Dis (Baghdad) 1 :53–76.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68

    Zaim M, Ershadi MR, Manouchehri AV, Hamdi MR, 1986. The use of CDC light traps and other procedures for sampling malaria vectors in southern Iran. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2 :511–515.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69

    Zaim M, Zahirnia AH, Manouchehri AV, 1993. Survival rates of Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles pulcherrimus in sprayed and unsprayed villages in Ghassreghand district, Baluchistan, Iran, 1991. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 9 :421–425.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70

    Zaim M, Manouchehri AV, Motabar M, Mowlaii G, Kayedi MH, Pakdad P, Nazari M, 1992. Ecology of Anopheles pulcherrimus in Baluchistan, Iran. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 8 :293–296.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71

    Zimmerman JH, Hanafi HA, Abbassy MM, 1985. Host-feeding patterns of Culex mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) on farms in Gharbiya Governorate. Egypt J Med Entomol 22 :82–87.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72

    Amerasinghe FP, Amerasinghe PH, Peiris JS, Wirtz RA, 1991. Anopheline ecology and malaria infection during the irrigation development of an area of the Mahaweli Project, Sri Lanka. Am J Trop Med Hyg 45 :226–236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73

    Asinas CY, 1992. Current status of malaria and control activities in the Philippines. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 23 :55–59.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74

    Baimai V, Kijchalao U, Sawadwongporn P, Green CA, 1988. Geographic distribution and biting behaviour of four species of the Anopheles dirus complex (Diptera:Culicidae) in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 19 :151–161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75

    Cabrera BD, Arambulo PV III, 1977. Malaria in the Republic of the Philippines. A review. Acta Trop 34 :265–279.

  • 76

    Lim ES, 1992. Current status of malaria in Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 23 :43–49.

  • 77

    Rahman WA, Che’Rus A, Ahmad AH, 1997. Malaria and Anopheles mosquitoes in Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 28 :599–605.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78

    Ratanatham S, Upatham ES, Prasittisuk C, Rojansunan W, Theerasilp N, Tremongkul A, Viyanant V, 1988. Bionomics of Anopheles minimus and its role in malaria transmission in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 19 :283–289.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79

    Torres EP, Salazar NP, Belizario VY, Saul A, 1997. Vector abundance and behaviour in an area of low malaria endemicity in Bataan, the Philippines. Acta Trop 63 :209–220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80

    Chen B, Harbach RE, Butlin RK, 2002. Molecular and morphological studies on the Anopheles minimus group of mosquitoes in southern China: taxonomic review, distribution and malaria vector status. Med Vet Entomol 16 :253–265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 81

    Feng L-C, 1935. The present status of the knowledge of the mosquitoes of China and their relation to human diseases. Chin Med J 49 :1183–1208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82

    Feng L-C, 1937. The anopheline mosquitoes and the epidemiology of malaria in China. Chin Med J 51 :1005–1020.

  • 83

    Lien JC, 1991. Anopheline mosquitoes and malaria parasites in Taiwan. Gaoxiong Yi Xue Ke Xue Za Zhi 7 :207–223.

  • 84

    Liu C, 1990. Comparative studies on the role of Anopheles anthropophagus and An. sinensis in malaria transmission in China. Chung Kuo Chi Sheng Chung Hsueh Yu Chi Sheng Chung Ping Tsa Chih 11 :360–363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85

    Wu KC, Chen WJ, Wang ZG, Cai XZ, Deng D, Hu LK, Liu ZY, Zhu WG, Guan DH, Jiang WK, 1993. Studies on distribution and behavior of Anopheles minimus and its current role in malaria transmission in Hainan Province at present. Chung Kuo Chi Sheng Chung Hsueh Yu Chi Sheng Chung Ping Tsa Chih 11 :120–123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86

    Zheng KS, 1989. To explore the principal vector of malaria by using vectorial capacity. Chung Kuo Chi Sheng Chung Hsueh Yu Chi Sheng Chung Ping Tsa Chih 10 :162–163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87

    Gunasekaran KP, Sahu SS, Parida SK, Sadanandane C, Jambulingam P, Das PK, 1989. Anopheline fauna of Koraput District, Orissa State with particular reference to transmission of malaria. Indian J Med Res 89 :340–343.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88

    Nagpal BN, Sharma VP, 1983. Mosquitoes of coastal Orissa. Indian J Malariol 20 :141–143.

  • 89

    Sharma VP, 1999. Current scenario of malaria in India. Parassitologia 41 :349–353.

  • 90

    Shrestha SL, Pradhan S, Shrestha PB, Shrestha JD, Rajbhamdari Y, Shrestha GL, Swar TB, Nushin MK, Reisen WK, 1988. Observations on anopheline and malaria and malaria ecology in the far western region of Nepal, 1986. Bull Soc Vector Ecol 13 :332–342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91

    Afifi SE, Spencer M, Hudson PB, Tavil NW, 1980. Biting prevalence and malaria transmission patterns in the Anopheles punctulatus complex (Diptera:Culicidae) in Papua New Guinea. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 58 :1–17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92

    Bryan JH, Foley DH, Sutherst RW, 1996. Malaria transmission and climate change in Australia. Med J Aust 164 :345–347.

  • 93

    Cooper RD, Frances SP, Sweeney AW, 1995. Distribution of members of the Anopheles farauti complex in the Northern Territory of Australia. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 11 :66–71.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94

    Russell RC, 1987. Seasonal abundance, longevity and population age composition of potential malaria vectors in northern and southern Australia. Aust J Zool 35 :289–306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95

    Sweeney AW, Cooper RD, Frances SP, 1990. Distribution of the sibling species of Anopheles farauti in the Cape York Peninsula, Northern Queensland, Australia. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 6 :425–429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 96

    Adamovic Z, 1978. Anopheline mosquito species (Diptera, Culicidae) in west Backa, Yugoslavia. Acta Vet 28 :243–249.

  • 97

    Hackett LW, Missiroli A, 1935. The varieties of An. maculipennis and their relation to the distribution of malaria in Europe. Riv Malariol 14 :45–109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 98

    Jaenson TGT, Ameneshewa B, 1991. Perhibernation diet and reproductive condition of female Anopheles messeae in Sweden. Med Vet Entomol 5 :243–252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 99

    Jaenson TGT, Lokki J, Saura A, 1986. Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) and malaria in northern Europe, with special reference to Sweden. J Med Entomol 9 :305–311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100

    Jetten TH, Takken W, 1994. Anophelism without Malaria in Europe; A Review of the Ecology and Distribution of the Genus Anopheles in Europe. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Agricultural University. Wageningen University Papers, 94–95.

  • 101

    Katrin GK, Campbell-Lendrum DH, Davies CE, 2002. A continental risk map for malaria mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) vectors in Europe. J Med Entomol 39 :621–630.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102

    Romi R, Severini C, Pierdominici G, Marchi A, Erbi G, Mantega V, Pinna G, Lavagnino A, Vitale F, 1994. Residual anophelism in Italy: distribution in 4 southern regions. Ann Ist Super Sanita 30 :237–242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103

    Romi R, 1999. Anopheles labranchiae, an important malaria vector in Italy, and other potential malaria vectors in southern Europe. Eur Mosq Bull 4 :8–10.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104

    Dorsie RF Jr., Word RA, 1981. Identification and geographical distribution of the mosquitoes of North America, North of Mexico. American Mosquito Control Association, Fresno, CA.

  • 105

    ESRI, 1998. ArcView GIS Version 3.2 for Windows. Redlands, CA: Environmental Systems Research Institute.

  • 106

    LP DAACb, 1999. Global Land Cover Characteristics 1km Database. These data are distributed by the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center located at the U.S. Geological Survey’s EROS Data Center http://edcdaac.usgs.gov.

  • 107

    LP DAACa, 1999. HYDRO1k Elevation Derivative Database. These data are distributed by the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center located at the U.S. Geological Survey’s EROS Data Center http://edcdaac.usgs.gov.

  • 108

    IAMAT, 2002. World Malaria Risk Chart. International Association for Medical Assistance to Travellers. Lewiston, NY. Available at http://www.iamat.org.

  • 109

    IPCC, 1999. International Panel on Climate Change Data Distribution Data Centre CD-ROM, April. Data are distributed at http://ipcc-ddc.cru.uea.ac.uk.

  • 110

    CIESIN, 2000. Gridded Population of the World (GPW), Version 2. Palisades, NY: Center for International Earth Science Information Network, Columbia University. Available at http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/plue/gpw.

  • 111

    Moshkovsky SD, Rashina MG, 1951. Epidemiology and medical parasitology for entomologists. Moscow. Unknown publisher. Cited in Detinova, TS, 1962. Age-Grouping Methods in Diptera of Medical Importance with Special Reference to Some Vectors of Malaria. Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • 112

    Bray RS, Gill GS, Killick-Kendrick R, 1984. Current and Possible Future Technique for the Identification of Bloodmeals of Vector Haematophagous Arthropods. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO/MAL/84.1013.

  • 113

    Davis GE, Phillip CB, 1931. The identification of the blood meal in west African mosquitoes by means of the precipitin test: a preliminary report. Am J Hyg 14 :130–141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114

    Garrett-Jones C, 1964. The human blood index of malaria vectors in relation to epidemiological assessment. Bull World Health Organ 30 :241–261.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 115

    Garrett-Jones C, Shidrawi GR, 1969. Malaria vectorial capacity of a population of Anopheles gambiae, an exercise in epidemiological entomology. Bull World Health Organ 40 :531–545.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 116

    Tempelis CH, Lofy MF, 1963. A modified precipitin method for identification of mosquito blood meals. Am J Trop Med Hyg 12 :825–831.

  • 117

    Weyer F, 1934. Ueber die Technik der Bestimmung des von Steckmucken gesogenen Blutes nach der Praecipitinmethode. Entomol Beih Berlin 1 :76–84.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 118

    Beier JC, Perkins PV, Wirtz RA, Koros J, Diggs D, Gargan TP II, Koech D, 1988. Bloodmeal identification by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), tested on Anopheles (Diptera:Culicidae) in Kenya. J Med Entomol 25 :9–16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 119

    Savage HM, Duncan JF, Roberts DR, Sholdt LL, 1991. A dip-stick ELISA for rapid detection of human detection of human blood meals in mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7 :16–23.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 120

    Crans WJ, 1969. An agar gel diffusion method for the identification of mosquito bloodmeals. Mosq News 29 :563–566.

  • 121

    Gillies MT, 1961. Studies on the dispersion and survival of Anopheles gambiae Giles in East Africa by means of marking and release experiments. Bull Entomol Res 52 :99–127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 122

    Detinova TS, Beklemishev WN, Bertram DS, 1963. Methodes a Appliquer pour Classer le Groupes d’Age les Dipteres Presentant une Importance Medicale. Serie de Monographies 47. Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • 123

    Breeland S, 1972. Studies on the ecology of Anopheles albimanus.Am J Trop Med Hyg 21 :751–754.

  • 124

    Bruce-Chwatt LJ, Gockel CW, 1960. A study of the blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles mosquitoes through precipitin tests. Bull World Health Organ 22 :685–720.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 125

    Garrett-Jones C, Boreham PFL, Pant CP, 1980. Feeding habits of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) in 1971–78, with reference to the human blood index: a review. Bull Entomol Res 70 :165–185.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 126

    Hill RB, 1934. Feeding habits of some Venezuelan Anopheles. Am J Trop Med 14 :425–429.

  • 127

    Loyola EG, Gonzalez-Ceron L, Rodriguez MH, Arredondo-Jimenez JI, Bennet S, Down DN, 1993. Anopheles albimanus (Diptera:Culicidae) host selection patterns in three ecological areas of the coastal plains of Chiapas, Southern Mexico. J Med Entomol 30 :518–523.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 128

    Mekuria Y, Granados R, Tidwell MA, Williams DC, Wirtz RA, Roberts DR, 1991. Malaria transmission potential by Anopheles mosquitoes of Dajabon, Dominican Republic. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7 :456–461.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 129

    WHO/Lister Institute, 1960. A study of the blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles mosquitos through precipitin tests. Results of collaborative work for the period 1955–59 and their application to malaria eradication programmes. Bull World Health Organ 22 :685–720.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 130

    Huang QL, Zhou JX, Zhang MC, Xie JX, 1992. Observation on malaria transmission intensity at a stone-pit of the mountain area in Baoan County, Guangdong Province. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 10 :124–127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 131

    Deane LM, Vernin SC, Damasceno RG, 1949. Avaliacao das preferencias alimentares das femeas de Anopheles darlingi e Anopheles aquasalis em Belem, por meio de provas de precipitina. Rev Serv Esp Saude Publica 2 :793–808.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 132

    Flores-Mendoza C, Cunha RA, Rocha DS, Lourenco-de-Oliveira R, 1996. Identification of food sources of Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera:Culicidae) by precipitin test in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rev Saude Publica 30 :129–134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 133

    Bogh C, Clarke SE, Pinder M, Sanyang F, Lindsay SW, 2001. Effect of passive zooprophylaxis on malaria transmission in the Gambia. J Med Entomol 38 :822–828.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 134

    Charlwood JD, Qassim M, Elnsur EI, Donnelly M, Petrarca V, Billingsley PF, Pinto J, Smith T, 2001. The impact of indoor spraying with malathion on malaria in refugee camps in eastern Sudan. Acta Trop 80 :1–8.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 135

    Diatta M, Spiegel A, Lochouarn L, Fontenille D, 1998. Similar feeding preferences of Anopheles gambiae and A. arabiensis in Senegal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92 :270–272.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 136

    Diallo S, Konate L, Faye O, Ndir O, Faye M, Gueye A, Diouf M, 1998. Malaria in southern sanitary district of Dakar (Senegal). Bull Soc Pathol Exot 91 :259–263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 137

    Fontenille D, Lochouarn L, Diatta M, Sokhna C, Dia I, Diagne N, Lemasson JJ, Ba K, Tall A, Rogier C, Trape JF, 1997. Four years’ entomological study of the transmission of seasonal malaria in Senegal and the bionomics of Anopheles gambiae and A. arabiensis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91 :647–652.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 138

    Githeko AK, Service MW, Mbogo CM, Atieli FK, Juma FO, 1994. Origin of blood meals in indoor and outdoor resting malaria vectors in western Kenya. Acta Trop 58 :307–316.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 139

    Githeko AK, Adungo NI, Karanja DM, Hawley WA, Vulule JM, Seroney IK, Ofulla AVO, Atieli FK, Ondijo SO, Genga IO, Odada PK, Situbi PA, Oloo JA, 1996. Some observations on the biting behavior of Anopheles gambiae s.s., Anopheles arabiensis, and Anopheles funestus and their implication for malaria control. Exp Parasitol 82 :306–315.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 140

    Habtewold T, Walker AR, Curtis CF, Osir EO, Thapa N, 2001. The feeding behavior and Plasmodium infection of Anopheles mosquitoes in southern Ethiopia in relation to use of insecticide-treated livestock for malaria control. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 :584–586.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 141

    Haids M, Lulu M, Mekonnen Y, Asefaw T, 1997. Host choices by indoor-resting Anopheles arabiensis in Ethiopia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91 :376–378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 142

    Highton RB, Bryan JH, Boreham PFL, Chandler JA, 1979. Studies on the sibling species Anopheles gambiae Giles and Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Kisumu area, Kenya. Bull Entomol Res 69 :43–53.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 143

    Ijumba JN, Mosha FW, Lindsay SW, 2002. Malaria transmission risk variations derived from different agricultural practices in an irrigated area of northern Tanzania. Med Vet Entomol 16 :28–38.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 144

    Ijumba JN, Mwangi RW, Beier JC, 1990. Malaria transmission potential of Anopheles mosquitoes in the Mwea-Tebere irrigation scheme, Kenya. Med Vet Entomol 4 :425–432.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 145

    Joshi GP, Service MW, Pradhan GD, 1975. A survey of species A and B of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex in the Kisumu area of Kenya prior to insecticidal spraying with OMS-43 (fenitrothion). Ann Trop Med Parasitol 69 :91–104.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 146

    Lemasson JJ, Fontenille D, Lochouarn L, Dia I, Simard F, Ba K, Diop A, Diatta M, Molez JF, 1997. Comparison of behavior and vector efficiency of Anopheles gambiae and An.arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Barkedji, a Sahelian area of Senegal. J Med Entomol 34 :396–403.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 147

    McCall PJ, Mosha FW, Njunwa KJ, Sherlock K, 2001. Evidence for memorized site-fidelity in Anopheles arabiensis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95 :587–590.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 148

    Service MW, Joshi GP, Pradhan GD, 1978. A survey of Anopheles gambiae (species A) and Anopheles arabiensis (species B) of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex in the Kisumu area of Kenya following insecticidal spraying with OMS-43 (fenitrothion). Ann Trop Med Parasitol 72 :377–386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 149

    White GB, Magayuka SA, Boreham PFL, 1972. Comparative studies on sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex (Diptera: Culicidae): bionomics and vectorial activity of species A and species B at Segara, Tanzania. Bull Entomol Res 62 :295–317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 150

    White GB, Rosen P, 1973. Comparative studies on sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex (Dipt., Culicidae). II. Ecology of species A and B in savanna around Kaduna, Nigeria, during transition from wet to dry season. Bull Entomol Res 62 :613–625.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 151

    Gaschen H, Raynal J, 1936. Recherches sur les affinites trophiques des anopheles d’Indochine. Premiere note. Ann Inst Pasteur 57 :311–315.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 152

    Olivaria J, Hill RB, 1935. Algunos datos sobre las preferencias hematicos de las A. maculipennis. Med Paises Calidos 8 :169–173.

  • 153

    Pittaluga G, et al., 1932. Le paludisme dans les “deltas”. (Etudes sur certaines conditions naturelles et experimentales de l’anophelisme dans le delta de l’Ebre., 1926–1930. Arch Roumaines Pathol Exp Microbiol 5 :5–11.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 154

    Swellengrebel NH, de Buck A, 1938. Les races hollandaises de l’Anopheles maculipennis et leurs rapports avec les races italiennes. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 26 :273–282.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 155

    Collins RT, Narasimham MV, Dhal KB, Mukherjee BP, 1991. Gel diffusion analysis of Anopheles bloodmeals from 12 malarious study villages of Orissa State, India. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7 :595–603.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 156

    Green R, 1933. Annual Report of the Division of Malaria Research for the Year 1933. Kuala Lumpur: Institute of Medical Research FMS Kuala Lumpur.

  • 157

    Green R, 1934. Annual Report of the Division of Malaria Research for the Year 1934. Kualla Lumpur: Institute of Medical Research MS Kuala Lumpur.

  • 158

    Walch EW, 1932. On the relation between the preference for animal or human blood of Netherland-Indian Anopheles and their ability to transmit malaria under natural conditions. Acta Neerland Physiol 2 :206–210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 159

    Abhayawardena TA, 1995. Identification of the source of blood meals of wild caught Anopheles culicifacies and An. subpictus using gel diffusion technique. Proc Sri Lanka Assoc Adv Sci 51 :54–55.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 160

    Afridi MK, Singh J, Singh H, 1939. Food preferences of Anopheles in the Delhi urban area. J Mal Inst India 2 :219–227.

  • 161

    Amerasinghe PH, Amerasinghe FP, Konradsen F, Fonseka KT, Wirtz RA, 1999. Malaria vectors in a traditional dry zone village in Sri Lanka. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 :421–429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 162

    Dash AP, 1985. Host selection patterns of five mosquito species of Orissa. J Zool Soc India 37 :111–116.

  • 163

    Dewit I, Coosemans M, Srikrishnaraj K, Wery M, 1994. Population dynamics of anophelines in a malathion treated village in the intermediate zone of Sri Lanka. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 74 :93–103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 164

    Gunasekaran KP, Sadanandane C, Parida SK, Sahu SS, Patra KP, Jambulingam P, 1994. Observations on nocturnal activity and man biting habits of malaria vectors, An. fluviatilis, An. annularis and An. culicifacies in the hill tracts of Koraput District, Orissa. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 25 :187–195.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 165

    Joshi H, Vasantha K, Subbarao SK, Sharma VP, 1988. Host feeding patterns of Anopheles culicifacies species A and B. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 4 :248–251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 166

    Mahmood F, MacDonald M, 1985. Ecology of malaria transmission and vectorial capacity of Anopheles culicifacies species A in rural Punjab Pakistan. Pakistan J Med Res 24 :95–106.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 167

    Nanda N, Yadav RS, Subbarao SK, Josji H, Sharma VP, 2000. Studies on Anopheles fluviatilis and Anopheles culicifacies sibling species in relation to malaria in forested hilly and deforested riverine ecosystems in northern Orissa, India. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 16 :199–205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 168

    Ramachandra Rao T, 1984. The Anophelines of India. Second edition. New Delhi: Indian Council of Medical Research.

  • 169

    Reisen WK, Boreham PFL, 1979. Host selection patterns of some Pakistan mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 28 :408–421.

  • 170

    Reisen WK, Boreham PFL, 1982. Estimates of vectorial capacity for Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles stephensi in rural Punjab province, Pakistan. J Med Entomol 19 :98–103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 171

    Roy A, Ansari MA, Sharma VP, 1991. Feeding behaviour patterns of anophelines from Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat states of India. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7 :11–15.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 172

    Russell PF, Rao T, 1942. Observations on the longevity of Anopheles culicifacies Imagines. Am J Trop Med 22 :517–533.

  • 173

    Charlwood JD, Alecrim WA, 1989. Capture-recapture studies with the South American malaria vector Anopheles darlingi, Root. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 83 :569–576.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 174

    Chow CY, 1970. Bionomics of malaria vectors in the western Pacific region. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1 :40–57.

  • 175

    Dutta P, Bhattacharyya DR, Khan SA, Sharma CK, Mahanta J, 1996. Feeding patterns of Anopheles dirus, the major vector of forest malaria in north east India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 27 :378–381.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 176

    Hii JL, Kan S, Vun YS, Chin KF, Tambakau S, Chan MK, Lye MS, Mak JW, Cochrane AH, 1988. Transmission dynamics and estimates of malaria vectorial capacity for Anopheles balabacensis and An. flavirostris (Diptera: Culicidae) on Banggi island, Sabah, Malaysia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 82 :91–101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 177

    Graves PM, Burkot TR, Saul AJ, Hayes RJ, Carters R, 1990. Estimation of anopheline survival rate, vectorial capacity and mosquito infection probability from malaria vector infection rates in villages near Madang, Papua New Guinea. J Appl Ecol 27 :134–147.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 178

    Akiyama J, 1968. Assignment Report, Malaria Eradication Program, West Pakistan, July 1961June 1968. Geneva: World Health Organization. Unpublished report WHO-EM/MAL/65.

  • 179

    Covell G, Harbhagwan J, 1939. Malaria in the Wynaad. South India J Mal Inst India 2 :341–376.

  • 180

    Jaswant S, Jacob VP, 1944. Malaria investigations in north Kanara. J Mal Inst India 5 :267–303.

  • 181

    Nanda N, Joshi H, Subbarao SK, Yadav RS, Shukla RP, Dua VK, Sharma VP, 1996. Anopheles fluviatilis complex: host feeding patterns of species S, T and U. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12 :147–149.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 182

    Zahar AR, 1974. Review of the ecology of malaria vectors in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region. Bull World Health Organ 50 :427–440.

  • 183

    Wekesa JW, Lemenager DA, Yuval B, Washino RK, 1992. Observations on the bloodfeeding behavior of Anopheles freeborni and Culex tarsalis in California’s Central Valley. Proc Calif Mosq Vector Control Assoc 60 :82–84.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 184

    Wekesa JW, Yuval B, Washino RK, de Vasquez AM, 1997. Blood feeding patterns of Anopheles freeborni and Culex tarsalis (Diptera:Culicidae): effects of habitat and host abundance. Bull Entomol Res 87 :633–641.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 185

    Bockarie MJ, Service MW, Barnish G, Toure YT, 1995. Vectorial capacity and entomological inoculation rates of Anopheles gambiae in a high rainfall forested area of southern Sierra Leone. Trop Med Parasitol 46 :164–171.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 186

    Chandler JA, Boreham PFL, Highton RB, Hill MN, 1975. A study of the host selection patterns of the mosquitoes of the Kisumu area of Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 69 :415–425.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 187

    Duchemin JB, Leong Pock Tsy JM, Rabarison P, Roux J, Coluzzi M, Costantini C, 2001. Zoophily of Anopheles arabiensis and An. gambiae in Madagascar demonstrated by odour-baited entry traps. Med Vet Entomol 15 :50–57.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 188

    Mbogo CN, Kabiru EW, Muiruri SK, Nzovu JM, Ouma JH, Githure JI, Beier JC, 1993. Bloodfeeding behavior of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus in Kilifi District, Kenya. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 9 :225–227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 189

    White GB, 1971. Blood feeding habits of mosquitoes in the South Pare District of Tanzania ten years after cessation of a dieldrin residual spraying campaign. East Afr Med J 48 :120–134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 190

    Bryan JH, Petrarca V, Di Deco MA, Coluzzi M, 1987. Adult behaviour of members of the Anopheles gambiae complex in the Gambia with special reference to An. melas and its chromosomal variants. Parassitologia 29 :221–249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 191

    Lindsay SW, Wilkins HA, Zieler HA, Daly RJ, Petrarca V, Byass P, 1991. Ability of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to transmit malaria during the dry and wet seasons in an area of irrigated rice cultivation in The Gambia. J Trop Med Hyg 94 :313–324.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 192

    Sousa CA, Pinto J, Almeida AP, do Rosario VE, Charlwood JD, 2001. Dogs as a favored host choice of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) of Sao Tome West Africa. J Med Entomol 38 :122–125.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 193

    Cefalu M, Oddo F, Sacca G, 1961. Vita extra-domestica di in Sicilia. Osservazioni in un’ area di sospensione dei trattamenti con DDT. Parassitologia 3 :23–51.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 194

    Escalar G, 1933. Applicazione sperimentale della zooprofilassi in Ardea. Riv Malariol 12 :373–380.

  • 195

    Romi R, Pierdominici G, Severini C, Tamburro A, Cocchi M, Menichetti D, Pili E, Marchi A, 1997. Status of malaria vectors in Italy. J Med Entomol 34 :263–271.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 196

    Davidson G, Ganapathipillai A, 1956. Observations on the bionomics of the adults of some Malayan anopheline mosquitoes. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 50 :137–146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 197

    Laurel AG, 1934. Feeding activities of some Philippine Anopheles. Rev Filipina Med Farm 25 :286–297.

  • 198

    Ramsay GC, Chandra SN, Lamprell BA, 1936. A record of an investigation to determine the androphilic indices of certain anopheline mosquitoes collected on the estates in Assam and Northern Bengal. Rec Mal Surv India 6 :49–61.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 199

    Barber MA, Rice JB, 1935. Malaria studies in Greece: The malaria infection rate in nature and in the laboratory of certain species of Anopheles of East Macedonia. Ann Trop Med 29 :329–348.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 200

    Erlikh VD, 1983. Feeding preferences of Anopheles mosquitoes of the “maculipennis” complex - an index of the effectiveness of their control. Med Parazitol (Mosk) 52 :53–58.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 201

    Kostich DJ, 1936. The extent to which zoophilism can be taken into consideration as regards anopheline mosquitoes of S. Serbia. Glasn Tzentr Khig Zavoda 19 :153–160.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 202

    Piccininni F, 1933. Relazione sulla campagna antimalarica in Provincia di Milano nell’Anno 1931. Riv Malariol 11 :839–876.

  • 203

    Prendel AR, Somov AA, 1938. Med Parazitol (Mosk) 7 :860–872.

  • 204

    Swellengrebel NH, De Buck A, Schoute E, 1929. On the food of adult Anopheles maculipennis in malarious and non-malarious regions. Proc Acad Sci Amst 32 :772–779.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 205

    Gaschen H, Raynal J, 1937. Recherches sur les affinites trophiques des Anopheles d’Indochin. Deuxieme note. Ann Inst Pasteur 59 :57–62.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 206

    Morishita K, Katagai T, 1933. Examination of blood in the stomachs of Anopheles in Formosa. Bobuts Zasshi Tokyo 45 :90–98.

  • 207

    Rattanarithikul R, Linthicum KJ, Konishi E, 1996. Seasonal abundance and parity rates of Anopheles species in southern Thailand. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 12 :75–83.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 208

    Raynal J, Gaschen H, 1935. Methode des precipitines appliquee aux anopheles. Resultats en Indochine-Nord. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 28 :937–943.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 209

    Beier JC, Zimmerman JH, Kenawy MA, el Said S, Abbassy MM, 1987. Host-feeding patterns of the mosquito community (Diptera: Culicidae) in two Faiyum Governorate villages, Egypt. J Med Entomol 24 :28–34.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 210

    Kenawy M, Zimmerman JH, Beier JC, el Said S, Abbassy MM, 1986. Host-feeding patterns of Anopheles sergentii and An. multicolor (Diptera: Culicidae) in Siwa and El Gara oases, Egypt. J Med Entomol 23 :576–577.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 211

    Kenawy M.A, Beier JC, Zimmerman JH, el Said S, Abbassy MM, 1987. Host-feeding patterns of the mosquito community (Diptera: Culicidae) in Aswan Governorate, Egypt. J Med Entomol 24 :35–39.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 212

    Kenawy MA, Beier JC, Asiago CM, el Said S, 1990. Factors affecting the human-feeding behavior of anopheline mosquitoes in Egyptian oases. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 6 :446–451.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 213

    Elliott R, 1972. The influence of vector behavior on malaria transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21 :755–763.

  • 214

    Rubio-Palis Y, Curtis CF, Gonzales C, Wirtz RA, 1994. Host choice of anopheline mosquitoes in a malaria endemic area of western Venezuela. Med Vet Entomol 8 :275–280.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 215

    Barber MA, Rice JB, 1937. A survey of malaria in Egypt. Am J Trop Med 17 :413–436.

  • 216

    Carrara GC, Petrarca V, Niang M., Coluzzi M, 1990. Anopheles pharoensis and transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in the Senegal River delta, West Africa. Med Vet Entomol 4 :421–424.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 217

    Gordon SW, Tammariello RF, Linthicum KJ, Wirtz RA, Digoutte JP, 1991. Feeding patterns of mosquitoes collected in the Senegal River basin. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7 :424–432.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 218

    Gordon SW, Tammariello RF, Linthicum KJ, Dohm DJ, Digoutte JP, Calvo-Wilson MA, 1992. Arbovirus isolations from mosquitoes collected during 1988 in the Senegal River basin. Am J Trop Med Hyg 47 :742–748.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 219

    Kenawy MA, 1991. Development and survival of Anopheles pharoensis and An. multicolor from Faiyum, Egypt. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7 :551–555.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 220

    Zahar AR, Shawarby A, Zaghloul T, Ezz el Arab MA, Kamel Z, Nasr NT, 1966. Epidemiological Evaluation of DDT Spraying with Studies on Behaviour of Anopheles pharoensis Theobald in Egypt, United Arab Republic. Geneva: World Health Organization, WHO/Mal/66.566. 35p.

  • 221

    Davis NC, Shannon RC, 1928. The blood feeding habits of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in Northern Argentina. Am J Trop Med 8 :443–448.

  • 222

    Fernandez-Salas I., Roberts DR, Rodriguez MH, Rodriguez M del C, Wirtz RA, 1994. Bionomics of adult Anopheles pseudopunctipennis (Diptera:Culicidae) in the Tapachula Foothills area of southern Mexico. J Med Entomol 31 :663–670.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 223

    Vargas L, 1938. Observaciones sobre la preferencia alimenticia sanguinea de A. pseudopunctipennis en Temixco, Morelas. Ann Inst Biol Mex 9 :201–208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 224

    Reisen WK, Aslamkhan M, 1979. A release-recapture experiment with the malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, with observations on dispersal, survivorship, population size, gonotrophic rhythm and mating behaviour. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 73 :251–270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 225

    Rishikesh N, 1972. Anopheles pulcherrimus Theobald (1902) as a possible vector of malaria in Iraq. Bull Endemic Dis (Baghdad) 13 :7–12.

  • 226

    Ward RA, 1972. Medical Entomology, Diptera, Culicidae. Health and Disease in Rural Afghanistan. Buck AA, Anderson RI, Kawata K, Word RA, Sasaki TT, Amin FM, eds. Baltimore: York Press.

  • 227

    Zahar AR, 1971. Report on a Visit to Afghanistan, July 28August 31, 1970. Geneva: World Health Organization. Unpublished report WHO-EM/MAL/102.

  • 228

    Apperson CS, Lanzaro GC, 1991. Comparison of host-feeding patterns between Anopheles quadrimaculatus sibling species A and B. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7 :507–508.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 229

    Jensen T, Cockburn AF, Kaiser PE, Barnard DR, 1996. Human blood-feeding rates among sympatric sibling species of Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes in northern Florida. Am J Trop Med Hyg 54 :523–525.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 230

    King WV, Bull CG, 1923. The blood feeding habits of malaria carrying mosquitoes. Am J Hyg 3 :497–513.

  • 231

    Barber MA, 1936. A survey of malaria in Cyprus. Am J Trop Med 16 :431–445.

  • 232

    Boreham PFL, Garrett-Jones C, 1973. Prevalence of mixed bloodmeals and double feeding in a malaria vector (Anopheles sacharovi Favre). Bull World Health Organ 48 :605–614.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 233

    Bruce-Chwatt LJ, Garrett-Jones C, Weitz B, 1966. Ten years study (1955–64) of host selection by anopheline mosquitoes. Bull World Health Organ 35 :405–439.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 234

    Chinayev PP, 1965. Range and epidemiological importance of the malarial mosquitoes Anopheles maculipennis sacharovi Fv., A. superpictus Gr. And A. pulcherrimus Theob. (Diptera-:Culicidae) in Soviet Central Asia. Entomol Rev 44 :64–169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 235

    Demirhan O, Kasap M, 1995. Bloodfeeding behavior of Anopheles sacharovi in Turkey. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 11 :11–14.

  • 236

    Edrissian GH, Manouchehri AV, Hafizi A, 1985. Application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of human blood index in anopheline mosquitoes collected in Iran. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 1 :349–352.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 237

    Hadjinicolaou J, Betzios B, 1972. Biological Studies of Anopheles sacharovi Favr in Greece. Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • 238

    Hadjinicolaou J, Betzios B, 1973. Resurgence of Anopheles sacharovi following malaria eradication. Bull World Health Organ 48 :699–703.

  • 239

    Kligler IJ, Mer G, 1932. Studies on malaria in an uncontrolled hyperendemic malaria X. Behavior of A. elutus in relation to housing and malaria. Riv Malariol 11 :553–583.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 240

    Motabar M, Tabibzadeh I., Manouchehri AV, 1975. Malaria and its control in Iran. Trop Geogr Med 27 :71–78.

  • 241

    Yaghoobi-Ershadi MR, Namazi J, Piazak N, 2001. Bionomics of Anopheles sacharovi in Ardebil province, northwestern Iran during a larval control program. Acta Trop 78 :207–215.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 242

    Chedecal M. 1938. Contribution a l’etude du comportement trophique des anophelines a Hanoi. Rev Med Franc Extr-Orient 8 :1007–1025.

  • 243

    Lee HI, Lee JS, Shin EH, Lee WJ, Kim YY, Lee KR, 2001. Malaria transmission potential by Anopheles sinensis in the Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol 39 :185–192.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 244

    Ree HI, Hwang UW, Lee IY, Kim TE, 2001. Daily survival and human blood index of Anopheles sinensis, the vector species of malaria in Korea. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 17 :67–72.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 245

    Toumanoff C, Hu SMK, 1935. Sur le comportement trophique d’Anopheles hyrcanus var sinensis dans le region de Shanghai. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 28 :832–838.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 246

    Hati AK, 1997. Urban malaria vector biology. Indian J Med Res 106 :149–163.

  • 247

    Kirnowardoya S, 1985. Entomological investigations of an outbreak of malaria in Chilacap on south coast of central Java, Indonesia during 1985. J Commun Dis 19 :121–127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 248

    Kumari R, Joshi H, Giri A, Sharma VP, 1993. Feeding preferences of Anopheles sundaicus in Car Nicobar island. Indian J Malariol 30 :201–206.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 249

    Senior-White RA, 1951. Studies on the bionomics of Anopheles aquasalis Curry Part I. Indian J Malariol 5 :293–404.

  • 250

    Senior-White RA, 1951. Studies on the bionomics of Anopheles aquasalis Curry Part II. Indian J Malariol 5 :465–512.

  • 251

    Van Thiel PH, 1935. Onderzoekingen omtrent den gedrag van Anopheles ten opzichte van mensch en dier, mede in verband met rassenstudie bij Anopheles maculipennis. Geneesk Tydschr Nederl.-Indie 75 :2101.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 252

    Frederickson C, 1987. An Estimate of the Malarial Vectorial Capacity for Anopheles albimanus in Rural Southern Chiapas, Mexico. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. Research Progress 1984–1985: RD 26/1.

  • 253

    Mahmood F, 1997. Life-table attributes of Anopheles albimanus (Wiedemann) under controlled laboratory conditions. J Vector Ecol 22 :103–108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 254

    Rodriguez MH, Bown DN, Arredondo-Jimenez JI, Villarreal C, Loyola EG, Frederickson CE, 1992. Gonotrophic cycle and survivorship of Anopheles albimanus (Diptera:Culicidae) in southern Mexico. J Med Entomol 29 :395–399.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 255

    Deane LM, 1986. Malaria vectors in Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 81 :5–14.

  • 256

    Flores-Mendoza C, Lourenco-de-Oliveira R, 1996. Bionomics of Anopheles aquasalis Curry 1932, in Guarai, State of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil - I. Seasonal distribution and parity rates. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 91 :265–270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 257

    Mendis C, Jacobsen JL, Gamage-Mendis A, Bule E, Dgedge M, Thompson R, Cuamba N, Barreto J, Begtrup K, Sinden RE, Høgh B, 2000. Anopheles arabiensis and An. funestus are equally important vectors of malaria in Matola coastal suburb of Maputo, southern Mozambique. Med Vet Entomol 14 :171–180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 258

    Hill RB, 1937. The length of life of Anopheles maculipennis var atroparvus. South Med J 30 :952–953.

  • 259

    Leeson HS, 1939. Longevity of Anopheles maculipennis race atroparvus, van Thiel at controlled temperature and humidity after one blood meal. Bull Entomol Res 30 :295–301.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 260

    Meller H, 1962. Vergleichende beobachtungen uber die biologie von Anopheles atroparvaus und Anopheles stephensi unter laboraturiumsbedingungen. Zeitsch. Trop Med Par 13 :80–102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 261

    Rosa A, 1936. Sulla durata di vita della varieta di Anopheles maculipennis. Riv Malariol 15 :399–403.

  • 262

    Shute PG, Ungureanu E, 1939. Preliminary Report of the Longevity of the Races of Anopheles maculipennis. League of Nations. Health Organ Mal Com CH/Malaria/273.

  • 263

    Mahmood F, Sakai RK, Akhtar K, 1984. Vector incrimination studies and observations on species A and B of the taxon Anopheles culicifacies in Pakistan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 78 :607–616.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 264

    Reisen WK, Mahmood F, Parveen T, 1980. Anopheles culicifacies Giles: a mark-release-recapture experiment with cohorts of known age in Pakistan with implications for malaria epidemiology and genetical control. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 74 :307–317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 265

    Reisen WK, Mahmood F, Azra K, 1981. Anopheles culicifacies Giles: adult ecological parameters measured in rural Punjab Province, Pakistan, using capture-mark-release-recapture and dissection methods, with comparative observations on An. stephensi Liston and An. subpictus Grassi. Res Popul Ecol 23 :39–60.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 266

    Charlwood JD, 1986. Survival rate variation of Anopheles farauti (Diptera:Culicidae) between neighboring villages in coastal Papua New Guinea. J Med Entomol 23 :361–365.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 267

    Ismail IAH, Notananda V, Schepens J, 1975. Studies on malaria and responses of Anopheles balabacensis balabacensis and Anopheles minimus to DDT residual spraying in Thailand. Part II. Post-spraying observations. Acta Trop 32 :206–231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 268

    Kitthawee S, Edman JD, Upatham ES, 1992. Relationship between female Anopheles dirus (Diptera:Culicidae) body size and parity in a biting population. J Med Entomol 29 :921–926.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 269

    Klein TA, Harrison BA, Grove JS, Dixon SV, Andre RG, 1986. Correlation of survival rates of Anopheles dirus A (Diptera-:Culicidae) with different infection densities of Plasmodium cynomolgi. Bull World Health Organ 64 :901–907.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 270

    Catangui FP, 1971. Studies on the gonotrophic cycle of Anopheles minimus flavirostris and the application of physiological age grading technique on the same species. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2 :384–392.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 271

    McHugh CP, 1989. Ecology of a semi-isolated population of adult Anopheles freeborni: abundance, trophic status, parity, survivorship, gonotrophic cycle length and host selection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 41 :169–176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 272

    Takken W, Charlwood JD, Bilingsley PF, Gort G, 1998. Dispersal and survival of Anopheles funestus and A. gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) during the rainy season in southeast Tanzania. Bull Entomol Res 88 :561–566.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 273

    Charlwood JD, Smith T, Billingsley PF, Takken W, Lyimo EOK, Meuwissen JHET, 1997. Survival and infection probabilities of anthropophagic anophelines from an area of high prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum in humans. Bull Entomol Res 87 :445–453.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 274

    Chege GM, Beier JC, 1990. Effect of Plasmodium falciparum on the survival of naturally infected afrotropical Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 27 :454–458.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 275

    Brengues J, Coz J, 1973.; Quelques aspects fondamentaux de la biologie d’Anopheles gambiae Giles (Sp.A) et d’Anopheles funestus Giles, en zone de savane humide d’Afrique de l’Ouest. Cah ORSTOM Ser Entomol Med Parasitol 11 :107–126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 276

    Coene J, 1993. Malaria in urban and rural Kinshasa: the entomological input. Med Vet Entomol 7 :127–137.

  • 277

    Chiang GL, Loong KP, Chan ST, Eng KL, Yap HH, 1991. Capture-recapture studies with Anopheles maculatus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) the vector of malaria in peninsular Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 22 :643–647.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 278

    Chuang CH, 1991. Current status of malaria in Taiwan from 1966 to 1990. Gaoxiong Yi Xue Ke Xue Za Zhi 7 :233–242.

  • 279

    Dash AP, Hazra RK, Mahapatra N, Tripathy HK, 2000. Disappearance of malaria vector Anopheles sundaicus from Chilika Lake area of Orissa State in India. Med Vet Entomol 14 :445–449.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 280

    Peters W, Standfast HA, 1960. Studies on the epidemiology of malaria in New Guinea. Part I, Holoendemic malaria - the entomological picture. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 54 :249–254.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 281

    Hitchcock JG Jr, 1968. Age composition of a natural population of Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say (Diptera:Culicidae) in Maryland, USA. J Med Entomol 5 :125–134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 282

    Keener GG Jr, 1945. Detailed observations on the life history of Anopheles quadrimaculatus. J Natl Mal Soc 4 :263–270.

  • 283

    Kasap H, 1990. Comparison of experimental infectivity and development of Plasmodium vivax in Anopheles sacharovi and An. superpictus in Turkey. Am J Trop Med Hyg 42 :111–117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 284

    Beier MS, Beier JC, Merdan AA, Sawaf BME, Kadder MA, 1987. Laboratory rearing techniques and adult life table parameters for Anopheles sergentii from Egypt. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 3 :266–270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 285

    Kasap H, Kasap M, Demirhan O, Alptekin D, 1987. Development of Plasmodium vivax in Anopheles superpictus under experimental conditions. Am J Trop Med Hyg 37 :241–245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 286

    Washino RK, Tempelis CH, 1983. Mosquito host blood meal identification: methodology and data analysis. Annu Rev Entomol 28 :179–201.

  • 287

    Beier JC, Killeen GF, Githure JI, 1999. Short report: entomologic inoculation rates and Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61 :109–113.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 288

    Sachs J, 2002. “Institutions Don’t Rule: Direct Effects of Geography on Per Capita Income. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economics Research. Working Paper.

 

 

 

 

 

A GLOBAL INDEX REPRESENTING THE STABILITY OF MALARIA TRANSMISSION

View More View Less
  • 1 Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Center for International Development, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; The Earth Institute at Columbia University, New York, New York

To relate stability of malaria transmission to biologic characteristics of vector mosquitoes throughout the world, we derived an index representing the contribution of regionally dominant vector mosquitoes to the force of transmission. This construct incorporated published estimates describing the proportion of blood meals taken from human hosts, daily survival of the vector, and duration of the transmission season and of extrinsic incubation. The result of the calculation was displayed globally on a 0.5° grid. We found that these biologic characteristics of diverse vector mosquitoes interact with climate to explain much of the regional variation in the intensity of transmission. Due to the superior capacity of many tropical mosquitoes as vectors of malaria, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa, antimalaria interventions conducted in the tropics face greater challenges than were faced by formerly endemic nations in more temperate climes.

INTRODUCTION

Maps representing the world-wide burden of malaria1 generally reflect the reported distribution of clinical episodes of this disease. However, the scope and accuracy of these reports are limited by the extent of health care coverage, the efficacy of surveillance and reporting systems, and other factors that have little to do with the underlying force of malaria transmission. Schemes using the mortality rates of garrisoned British troops in the early 18th century offer novel insights into the global distribution and variation of malaria risk,2–4 but represent the experience of an archaic and geographically limited population subject to peculiar behavioral constraints. The underlying force of malaria transmission is better represented by maps representing the climatic determinants of malaria, such as the schemes developed by the “Mapping Malaria Risk in Africa” (MARA) collaboration, are less affected by institutional limitations and are based on more objective ecologic bases.5 Such maps derive from a “climatic suitability index” that represents the climatic limits on vector distribution and parasite development as well as the presence of a sufficiently long breeding period for the vector population. These variables relate well to depictions in clinically based maps, but do not consider all of the factors intrinsic to vector mosquitoes that affect transmission intensity at a given level of abundance. Temperature, for example, is used only to define the limits and relative suitability of the region as a transmission site. Other maps attempt to bridge these clinically and environmentally based approaches on a regional scale by considering statistical correlations between malaria incidence and environmental characteristics.6 Such representations of malaria risk improve the resolution of spatial depictions of transmission intensity, but do not consider directly the properties intrinsic to vector mosquitoes that contribute most powerfully to vectorial capacity, such as focused feeding behavior and longevity. Available maps depicting the relative intensity of malaria transmission generally are constructed from surrogates or filtered outcomes that remain one or more steps removed from the forces that govern the stability of malaria transmission.

Malaria is said to be stable if it is transmitted throughout the year by long-lived, anthropophilic vector anopheline mosquitoes. In his seminal 1952 malariologic analysis, Macdonald used a/μ to represent an index of stability based on the two most important components of his vectorial capacity equation,7 in which a represents the human-biting tendency of the vector and μ the daily mortality rate. Although this index is useful when applied within a given site or between climatically similar sites, it does not account for ambient temperature, which profoundly affects the duration of extrinsic incubation. Although vector longevity contributes to the force of transmission as an exponent of this incubation period, Macdonald’s stability convention equates longevity with blood-feeding preference, which participates only as a squared term because at least two feedings are required to complete one transmission cycle. Perpetual transmission is particularly important in the case of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum because infected people tend to become noninfectious for mosquitoes within two months after they had been infected.8 These characteristics of stable transmission of malaria can provide a solid foundation for understanding variations in malaria transmission intensity. However, we lack a synthesis of the various designated components of transmission stability that can be used to compare the resiliency of malaria transmission in different sites.

It may be that a global depiction of the intrinsic contribution of mosquito vectors to malaria transmission would provide an objective measure of regional differences in the force of transmission, uncolored by clinical externalities. To depict these relationships, we derived a spatial index of the stability of malaria transmission based on the most powerful intrinsic properties of anopheline mosquito vectors of malaria that interact with climate to determine vectorial capacity. Because this index examines potential transmission stability, it includes regions where malaria is not currently transmitted, but where it had been transmitted in the past or where it might be transmitted in the future. This index, therefore, includes “anophelism (with as well as) without malaria.”

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Distribution and characteristics of vectors.

The peer-reviewed scientific literature served as the main source of information for characterizing the distribution and for describing certain biologic characteristics of selected anopheline vectors of malaria (Table 1). Although information from primary sources was preferred, more general reviews and texts were consulted. From these sources, we designated the dominant vectors in each of the countries in which malaria is or has been endemic. Only the smallest island nations and protectorates were excluded from these analyses. The level of resolution used also precluded detailed consideration of individual cities. A regionally “dominant” vector was defined as an anopheline that is demonstrably vector competent, frequently contains sporozoites, tends to feed on human hosts, and is more abundant than other anophelines. These considerations were applied independently to each month of the year to permit “swapping” of dominant vectors between seasons within a region. Regions were subdivided when appropriate to permit more than one malaria vector in a country to be designated as dominant.

To describe the seasonal distributions of each regionally dominant malaria vector for each of the 12 months of the year, we determined whether such a mosquito was locally active, using the same body of literature that was used to estimate vector bionomics. Sources of information were favored in which mosquito abundance was monitored systematically by means of landing counts, resting counts, light traps, flit catches, or other such objective methods. Certain of these sources described seasonal abundance in weekly, biweekly, or monthly observations. When no entomologic information was available, we relied on the recorded seasonality of malaria incidence. We consulted as many such reports as could be found and assigned values based on a “majority” of the available records. When no reliable information was available for a site, records of the local climate were interpolated to indicate whether a particular vector may be present there in a given month. The algorithm for decision-making in such anomalous cases varied according to the vector species. For those vectors that breed mainly in temporary water, we used a minimum precipitation threshold of 10 mm per month, lagged one month, to judge when the vector would be present in the site during a given month. Vectors that mainly exploited permanent or semi-permanent bodies of water were considered to be independent of seasonal fluctuations in rainfall unless empirical evidence indicated otherwise. In temperate or altitudinous regions, we used temperature thresholds to determine whether vectors would be active in a particular month, assuming that anophelines remain inactive when the mean monthly temperature remains below 15°C.

Mapping methods.

A map of vector distributions was created using ArcView version 3.2105 geographic information system software. An outline map of political borders was color-coded according to the dominant vector indicated by the literature review. In many cases, countries were divided into one or more subregions to account for ecologic heterogeneity in anopheline distribution. Gaps and discrepancies in the resulting preliminary map were corrected according to features of the habitat and climate. Satellite-derived vegetation indices, as indicated by the Global Ecosystem classification of the Global Land Cover Characteristics 1 km Database,106 provided a means for defining ranges by identifying areas with habitats suitable for vectors with such unique ecologic constraints as salt marshes or forests. The northern limit of the Sahel, for example, was generally defined by the extent of “hot and mild grasses and shrubs.” A digital elevation model107 was used to further define the ranges of vector species that were affected by maximum and, in some cases, minimum altitudinal limits, as reported in the World Malaria Risk Chart.108 Regions with more than 1.5 days of seasonal frost in the summer109 served to define the limits of distribution of vectors in the northern latitudes. Maps representing the extrinsic incubation period of P. falciparum were based on the 1901–1990 mean monthly temperature records of the International Panel on Climate Change.109 Human population data were derived from the detailed Gridded Population of the World data set.110 Data calculated for each month are represented in 0.5° cells.

Our analysis of the distribution of dominant vectors of malaria, therefore, was species specific and based on published reports of anopheline bionomics, vegetation maps (defining suitable, unsuitable habitat), altitude (maxima or minima), monthly precipitation thresholds (minima), and monthly temperature thresholds (minima, isotherms, length of frost-free season).

RESULTS

Selection of regionally dominant vector Anopheles.

We first identified the countries in which malaria is endemic or has been endemic and enumerated the vector Anopheles endemic to the site. Certain of these countries were divided into as many as four regions to represent the diversity of habitats there. To characterize the dominant vector in each region, we selected those that were longest lived and that fed most frequently on human hosts (Table 1). Dominant malaria vectors were designated in each endemic or potentially endemic region (Figure 1). The 260 regions that we identified are infested by a total of 34 dominant vector Anopheles.

Derivation of a vector stability index.

To depict the relative stability of malaria transmission for each of these potentially malaria-endemic regions, we derived an index that expressed those factors that most powerfully and perennially influence the intensity of malaria transmission. We used, therefore, a subset of the vectorial capacity equation without terms for mosquito abundance or vector competence. We did not consider a recovery rate for infected people. To calculate the duration of the extrinsic incubation period “E,” the index (1) was calculated for each month, and biting activity was designated based on the average monthly temperature and Moshkovsky’s degree-day-based formulae111 (2,3).

m=112ai,m2pi,mE/ln(pi,m)

where m = month (1–12), i = identity of dominant vector, a = proportion biting people (0–1), p = daily survival rate (0–1), and E = length of extrinsic incubation period in days where E = 111/T-16 for P. falciparum and E = 105/T-14.5 for P. vivax.

Parameterization of the stability index.

We first applied our vector stability index to each of the regions designated as infested by one or another of the 34 Anopheles vectors that we considered to be dominant. Criteria used to estimate a included field-derived estimates of the human biting index (hbi) based on mosquitoes captured in various locations and whose blood meals were identified by precipitin,112–117 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,118,119 or gel diffusion methods.120 Data were excluded if they derived from contrived experiments in which human or other hosts were exposed in a common space. In the case of mixed blood meals, any mosquito yielding evidence of ingested human blood was considered to be a human feeder in the calculation of a. Criteria for estimating daily survival rate (p) in the peer-reviewed literature variously used mark-release recapture tracking of the daily rate of decrease in recaptures,115,121 the ratio of Stage IV to Stage III ovarioles in dissected adults,122 the rate of increase in infection rate, parous rates, and directly observed mortality in mosquitoes maintained in cages in the laboratory. A common value for a was assigned to each vector species throughout its range. Where the members of a species complex were sympatric and not readily distinguished by habitat (e.g., Anopheles punculatus s.l.), a combined median estimate was used for all members of the taxon. In certain other cases (e.g., An. fluviatilis s.l.), in which the habitat preference of the anthropophilic members of the complex (sibling species S) differ from those that are zoophilic (T), the individual members were differentiated. Observations made before species complexes were recognized or before these species could readily be distinguished were excluded unless current information on geography or habitat facilitated such a distinction. This criterion excluded many older observations from parts of Africa where An. arabiensis and An. gambiae are sympatric and share in malaria transmission. The median hbi value for all 34 vectors was 0.672, ranging from 0.01 to 0.98 (Table 2). These values representing a are varied, but consistent.

Survival estimates for adult anophelines were highly variable between studies. The median daily survival value was 0.846, ranging from 0.682 for An. albimanus to 0.966 for An. atroparvus and An. quadrimaculatus (Table 3). Because survival was so infrequently estimated and because the methods of estimation have such disparate biases (e.g., lower mortality from population cages and higher mortality from mark-recapture), the median value of p was applied to all species across their ranges. A coherent value representing the stability index can thus be applied to each dominant vector anopheline.

Adaptation of the stability index to a fine geographic scale.

We then depicted our stability index on a geographic scale finer than that represented by the 260 regions that we designated as malarious or potentially malarious. Toward this end, depictions of seasonality in malaria transmission were refined by applying a 10-mm monthly precipitation threshold with a one-month lag that determined whether index values were calculated for individual 0.5° cells. Temperature data were applied on a similar scale to non-zero cells when calculating cell-level indices. The resulting cell-based index characterized broad regions and countries much as did the simpler region-based index while providing less abrupt transitions on the fringes of vector distributions, especially in arid zones. This inclusion of a micro-climate parameter in our index better balances the influence of temperature with that of rainfall, an effect that is more implicit than explicit in the region-based indices. The adjusted monthly maps were combined to create a final map of the malaria stability index (Figure 2). The resulting map resembles other depictions of the intensity of malaria risk throughout the world.1

DISCUSSION

Regional differences in stability.

Both the region-based and cell-based versions of our stability index demonstrate that malaria is transmitted far more robustly in sub-Saharan Africa than it is elsewhere in the world. In the savannah regions of west and central Africa that border the Sahel, stability is enhanced by the continuous heat that characterizes the region, the human-biting habit of the autochthonous vector mosquitoes and the presence of a complementary vector (An. funestus) that maintains transmission during the dry season when the density of the wet-season vectors (An. gambiae s.l.) wanes. Transmission is somewhat less stable in Papua New Guinea, Irian Jaya, and the Solomon Islands where particular members of the An. punctulatus complex are almost exclusively anthropophilic but where transmission virtually ceases during the rainy season. Malaria is less stable elsewhere in the tropics and least stable in the more temperate parts of the world. Tropical regions in general appear to face larger obstacles in intervening against malaria, which these indices suggest may be due more to the intrinsic properties of their vectors and the effects of climate than to differences in health systems or anti-malaria interventions. These indices also demonstrate the advantages that once were enjoyed in temperate nations that happened not to be burdened by anthropophilic mosquitoes.

Sources of error and bias.

The diverse methods that have been used to estimate mosquito survival tend to bias comprehensive longevity estimates. Mark-release recapture methods appear to be most conservative, possibly because mosquitoes are damaged when they are captured and held prior to release. Estimates derived from laboratory-reared mosquitoes, held in population cages, tend to exceed those derived in other ways, reflecting perhaps the absence of such natural hazards as predators. These biases are most apparent in the case of vectors that are represented poorly in the literature. The disproportionate effect of vector longevity on the index further exacerbates the effect of such aberrations. The results of the version of our index based on feeding habit alone are more consistent with clinical experience1 than is the index that includes both longevity and human-biting habit. The anomaly introduced by the longevity parameter appears to derive more from measurement error, sample size, and inconsistent methodology than any biologic property. For the purpose of the present global analysis, therefore, we chose to substitute a fixed value for longevity.

The methodology generally used for defining the blood-feeding habit of a mosquito286 is considerably less diverse and apparently more consistent than are methods used for estimating survival. Such estimates generally derive from precipitin resting, a method that has been used since the early 1920s and that has resulted in a considerable body of information on many of the dominant vectors. Because the precipitin test shows a relative lack of sensitivity,286 such results tend to be less determinate than are those based on gel diffusion or gene amplification. However, this diversity in the methods used for discriminating between blood sources appears not to introduce bias.

Rationale for using a single representative vector.

In characterizing regional force of transmission, we elected to base our calculations on the single most dominant anopheline species native to a particular place and during a given month. Not all possible vectors were included in the analyses because malaria prevalence rapidly becomes saturated as the entomologic inoculation rate increases.287 The contribution of a single dominant vector captures virtually all of the “signal” that characterizes endemicity in a region, thereby rendering secondary vectors irrelevant. This reasoning is based on the rationale that even subtle differences in human biting behavior and longevity lead to large differences in the force of transmission. These terms contribute powerfully in a nonlinear fashion. For similar reasons, additive weighting by relative abundance is avoided because a weak vector would unrealistically dilute the effect of the strong vector. A cumulative index that sums the contributions of all vectors would, similarly, be misleading.

Definition and contribution of a.

Much of the regional variation in the stability of malaria transmission can be explained solely by reference to vector feeding behavior. Although this factor is not the most powerful component of vectorial capacity, it may vary most widely as an intrinsic property of diverse vector species. Feeding preference is strongly influenced by the availability of particular hosts, and certain innate and species-specific properties of the vector affect choice. These behaviors range from complete zoophily to complete anthropophily with a continuum of intervening gradations. Longevity, as a trait, varies more subtly than does blood-feeding habit.

The vectorial capacity term for anthropophilic biting behavior (a) is handled variously in the literature. The original approach7 divided human biting preference by the length of the gonotrophic cycle in days to derive a term that specified the proportion of the vector mosquito population that actively sought hosts on a given day and likely to feed on human hosts. Various investigators depict a as the human biting rate. For the purpose of defining this index, however, we dissociate human feeding preference from biting interval because of the relative paucity of information on temperature-gonotrophic relationships for many mosquitoes. However, such temperature relationships are included in the index in the calculation for extrinsic incubation period length. Ideally, both temperature-dependent relationships would be included, thereby enhancing the differentiation between temperate and tropical regions because the current temperature effect would effectively be squared.

The effect of abundance and competence.

Our index includes those factors that most powerfully and perennially influence the intensity of malaria transmission. Other vector characteristics, such as abundance and competence, affect transmission less powerfully. Mosquito abundance is also affected by extreme inter-annual and inter-spatial variation that would tend to obscure the innate epidemiologic capacities of different types of mosquitoes. For the dominant vectors specified in our index, competence is less variable, but similarly weak in its influence. Competence often separates into input and output components,7 the probability that infected mosquitoes pass infection to a reservoir host (b) and the reverse relationship (c). Each of these terms, like abundance, has a linear effect on the force of transmission. Because we chose to ignore the contribution of less competent secondary vectors, the variation in competence between the vectors included in our index is greatly reduced. Our list of dominant vectors, therefore, represents an elite subset of the most competent anophelines capable of transmitting malaria.

The effect of other missing factors on the index.

The resolution of our index might be sharpened by including other estimators. In highland and in arid sites, where malaria transmission is seasonal, the infectiousness of the human reservoir population may periodically become reduced. A reservoir competence factor that is adjusted for the duration of such interruptions would tend to increase the contrast between the index values of temperate regions and those of highly seasonal tropical regions that include sites in which transmission is uninterrupted. Exophilic feeding behavior may also affect the force of transmission. Although difficult to quantify, endophilic vectors contribute more to malaria risk than do those that are exophilic. Incorporation of this property into our index might be useful.

Increasing the resolution of the grid cells to something less than the 0.5° dictated by our climate data would also improve the index. With more finely resolved geographic data, more spatial variability would be included, particularly for smaller countries and islands omitted due to the large size of each grid cell. The influence of focally important vectors such as urban An. stephensi and oasis-breeding An. sergentii would also be represented more accurately.

Anthropogenic conditions may modify our stability index by influencing the distribution, survival rate, and feeding habits of vectors. Insecticide use, improved house construction, land-use changes, and pollution (such as detergent contamination) would reduce the force of transmission. Anthropogenic changes that increase transmission would include accumulations of puddled ground water and enhanced resting sites. The latter condition can be a powerful determinant because it enhances longevity. Such artifactual conditions intermingle in a complex manner and would be difficult to incorporate into our index.

The contribution of the density of the human population to the stability of transmission might also be important because malaria transmission depends on the interaction of humans and mosquito vectors. Weighting by population density might reduce the index in countries where dense human populations inhabit non-malarious regions, such as the highlands of Kenya. In certain other regions, such as the Sahel, where people are compelled to reside where water is available, and thus where transmission is most stable, the index may become amplified. A parameter representing human density would contribute to the specificity of our stability index.

Effect of species complexes.

Many of the more broadly distributed anophelines represent complexes of heterogeneous populations. Although our analysis would have benefited from the finest possible resolution of such complexity, certain of the parameters that we used were based on aggregated estimates. In the case of An. fluviatilis, for example, the hbi values clustered distinctly around two medians. The standard deviation in this case approaches or surpasses the corresponding mean, suggesting aggregation of heterogeneous populations. In the absence of evidence to the contrary or of a means of applying such evidence to our parameters, we treated such disparate estimates as though they represent values for a single homogeneous population.

Summing up.

Our index of malaria stability depicts the regional resiliency of malaria perpetuation. It fills the gap between climatologically based and clinically based indices of transmission by including the most powerful components of vectorial capacity and their differing expression in the various anopheline vectors of malaria. Thus, it explicitly depicts the effects of ambient temperature on the force of transmission of malaria, as expressed through the length of the extrinsic incubation period, and the proportion of the vector population able to survive long enough to become infectious. Therefore, our map synthesizes the interaction of climate with malaria pathogens and mosquito vectors more comprehensively than do maps based on climate or clinical incidence alone. Our index of malaria stability provides baselines for comparing regional infectious throughputs in malaria vectors. These indices can help in efforts to design antimalaria interventions and to explore the links between malaria intensity and economic development. One immediate use of the index is as a statistical control in studies of the effects of malaria on economic development. A traditional problem with analyses of the correlation between malaria endemicity and economic development is the tendency of causation to run in both directions: from malaria to poverty and from poverty to malaria. The new index will be useful in measuring the extent of causation running from malaria to poverty because the index can be used as an instrumental variable in regressions of economic growth and income levels on malaria endemicity. The first statistical results of this application underscore the importance of malaria as an important causal factor in chronic impoverishment of holoendemic regions.288 Global variation in the stability of malaria transmission derives from interactions between climate and the specific biological characteristics of certain, dominant anopheline vectors.

Table 1

Sources of information on anopheline distribution and seasonality

RegionReferences
General1, 911
Africa1223
South and Central America8, 2453
Middle East5471
Southeast Asia7279
Northern Asia8086
Western Asia8790
Australasia9195
Europe96103
North America104
Table 2

Human blood index of each of the regionally dominant anopheline vector mosquitoes

Anopheles speciesMedian human blood indexNo. of observationsReferences
albimanus0.10216123129
anthropophagus0.0101130
aquasalis0.1093131132, 249, 250
arabiensis0.8713213, 20, 125, 133150
atroparvus0.2458151154, 251
barbirostris0.1279124, 125, 129, 155158
culicifacies0.05255125, 155, 159172
darlingi0.4582129, 173
dirus0.35518124, 125, 174176
farauti0.65819124, 125, 129, 174, 177
flavirostris0.3009125, 129, 174, 176
fluviatilis0.0342758, 124, 125, 129, 155, 167, 169, 178182
freeborni0.0198104, 183, 184
funestus0.9803012, 118, 125, 138, 139, 143, 185189
gambiae ss0.9393612, 13, 14, 133, 135, 138, 139, 142, 145, 146, 148, 149, 150, 185, 186, 190192
labranchiae0.15117103, 123, 124, 128, 193195
maculatus0.15510125, 155, 156, 158, 196198
melas0.690623, 74, 133, 190
messeae0.17214117, 154, 199, 200, 201204
minimus0.42512125, 151, 176, 197, 205208
multicolor0.0081562, 124, 125, 209212
nuneztovari0.2221130, 46, 49, 50, 213, 214
pharoahensis0.52017124, 125, 129, 209, 211, 215220
pseudopunctipennis0.47713124, 126, 129, 221223
pulcherrimus0.06212124, 125, 129, 224227
punctulatus sl0.8557124, 125, 129, 174, 177
quadrimaculatus0.11127228230
sacharovi0.08747125, 199, 231241
sergentii0.10018124, 125, 129, 210, 212
sinensis0.01821124, 129, 151, 157, 158, 174, 206, 242245
stephensi0.0233763, 124, 125, 129, 155, 160, 166, 169, 170, 176, 246
superpictus0.0931859, 124, 129, 193, 199, 231, 234, 240
sundaicus0.61117124, 125, 129, 158, 247248
Table 3

Survival rate of each of the regionally dominant anopheline vector misquitoes

AnophelesMedian daily survival rateNo. of observationsReferences
albimanus0.68216128, 252254
anthropophagus0.8031130
aquasalis0.7763131, 255, 256
arabiesis0.79032143, 144, 149, 257
atroparvus0.9668258262
barbirostris0.9809157
culicifacies0.8315569, 166, 170, 224, 263265
darlingi0.8042173
dirus0.91618176, 207, 267269
farauti0.82919177, 266
flavirostris0.9619176, 270
fluviatilis0.73527167
freeborni0.7408271
funestus0.69030144, 257, 272274
gambiae ss0.8603642, 149, 185, 191, 192, 275, 276
labranchiae0.85017195, 262
maculatus0.80010157, 207, 277, 278
melas0.8606(see An. gambiae)
messeae0.88114261, 262
minimus0.87612181, 207, 279
multicolor0.86515219
muneztovari0.7661149
pharoahensis0.73517219
pseudopunctipennis0.88013222
pulcherrimus0.7801269, 227
punctulatus sl0.8557177, 280
quadrimaculatus0.96627222, 281, 282
sacharovi0.85847261, 283
sergentii0.95018215, 284
sinensis0.85721243, 244
stephensi0.81037166, 169, 170, 246, 263, 265
superpictus0.94518283, 285
sundaicus0.85917130, 157
Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Global distribution (Robinson projection) of dominant or potentially important malaria vectors.

Citation: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Am J Trop Med Hyg 70, 5; 10.4269/ajtmh.2004.70.486

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Distribution (Robinson projection) of the actual and potential stability of malaria transmission based on regionally dominant vector mosquitoes and a 0.5° gridded temperature and precipitation data set.

Citation: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Am J Trop Med Hyg 70, 5; 10.4269/ajtmh.2004.70.486

Authors’ addresses: Anthony Kiszewski, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, I-109, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston MA 02115, Telephone: 617-432-4229, Fax: 617-432-1796, E-mail: akisz@hsph.harvard.edu. Andrew Mellinger and Pia Malaney, Center for International Development/Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 1 Eliot Street, Cambridge MA 02138, Telephone: 617-496-0113, E-mails: Andrew_Mellinger@ksg.harvard.edu and Pia_Malaney@ksg.harvard.edu. Andrew Spielman, Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, I-109, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston MA 02115, Telephone: 617-432-2058, Fax: 617-432-1796, E-mail: aspielma@hsph.harvard.edu. Sonia Ehrlich Sachs and Jeffrey Sachs, The Earth Institute at Columbia University, New York, NY 10115.

Acknowledgments: We are grateful for the assistance of Derek Willis for his diligence in discovering background material for this work.

Financial support: This work was supported in part by a grant from the World Health Organization.

REFERENCES

  • 1

    WHO, 1997. World malaria situation in 1994. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 72 :269–276.

  • 2

    Curtin PD, 1989. Death by Migration: Europe’s Encounter with the Tropical World in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • 3

    Curtin PD, 1998. Disease and Empire: The Health of European troops in the Conquest of Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  • 4

    Acemoglu D, Johnson S, Robinson JA, 2000. The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper No. 7771.

  • 5

    Craig MH, Snow RW, le Sueur D, 1999. A climate-based distribution model of malaria transmission in Africa. Parasitol Today 15 :105–111.

  • 6

    Kleinschmidt I, Clarke GPY, Bagayoko M, Craig MH, le Sueur D, 2000. A spatial statistical approach to malaria mapping. Int J Epidemiol 29 :355–361.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    MacDonald G, 1952. The analysis of equilibrium in malaria. Trop Dis Bull 49 :813–829.

  • 8

    Boyd MF, 1926. Studies of the epidemiology of malaria in the coastal lowlands of Brazil, made before and after execution of control measures. Am J Hyg Monogr 5.

  • 9

    Komp WHW, 1948. The anopheline vectors of malaria of the world. Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress on Tropical Medicine. Malaria. Washington, DC: May 10–18, 1948, 644–655.

  • 10

    Metselaar D, Van Theil PM, 1959. Classification of malaria. Trop Geogr Malaria 11 :157–161.

  • 11

    Molineaux L, 1988. The epidemiology of human malaria as an explanation of its distribution, including some implications for its control. Wernsdorfer WH, McGregor I, eds. Principles and Practice of Malariology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 913–998.

  • 12

    Antonio-Nkondjio C, Awono-Ambene P, Toto JC, Meunier JY, Zebaze-Kemleu S, Nyambam R, Wondji CS, Tchuinkam T, Fontenille D, 2002. High malaria transmission intensity in a village close to Yaounde, the capital city of Cameroon. J Med Entomol 39 :350–355.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Awolola TS, Okwa O, Hunt RH, Ogunrinade AF, Coetzee M, 2002. Dynamics of the malaria-vector populations in coastal Lagos, south-western Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96 :75–82.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Bockarie MJ, Service MW, Barnish G, Maude GH, Greenwood BM, 1994. Malaria in a rural area of Sierra Leone. III. Vector ecology and disease transmission. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 88 :251–262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Boudin C, Lyannaz J, Bosseno MF, Carnevale P, Ambroise-Thomas P, 1991. Epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum in a rice field and a savanna area in Burkina Faso: seasonal fluctuations of gametocytemia and malarial infectivity. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 85 :377–385.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Coetzee M, Craig MH, le Sueur D, 2000. Mapping the distribution of members of the Anopheles gambiae complex in Africa and adjacent islands. Parasitol Today 16 :74–77.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Gillies MT, De Meillon B, 1968. The Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara (Ethiopian Zoogeographical Region). Johannesburg, South Africa: South African Insitute of Medical Research, Publication No. 54.

  • 18

    Lindsay SW, Parson L, Thomas CJ, 1998. Mapping the ranges and relative abundance of the two principal African malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis, using climate data. Proc R Soc London B Biol Sci 265 :847–854.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Omumbo JA, Ouma J, Rapuoda B, Craig MH, le Sueur D, Snow RW, 1997. Mapping malaria transmission intensity using geographical information systems (GIS); an example from Kenya. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92 :7–21.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Petrarca V, Beier JC, Onyango F, Koros J, Asiago C, Koech DK, Roberts CR, 1991. Species composition of the Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera: Culicidae) at two sites in western Kenya. J Med Entomol 28 :307–313.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Shililu JI, Maier WA, Seitz HM, Orago AS, 1998. Seasonal density, sporozoite rates and entomological inoculation rates of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus in a high-altitude sugar cane growing zone in Western Kenya. Trop Med Int Health 3 :706–710.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Symes CB, 1930. Anophelines in Kenya. Kenya East Afr Med J 7 :2.

  • 23

    White GB, 1974. Anopheles gambiae Complex and disease transmission in Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 68 :278–298.

  • 24

    Berti J, Zimmerman R, Amarista J, 1993. Adult abundance, biting behavior and parity of Anopheles aquasalis Curry 1932 in two malarious areas of Sucre State, Venezuela. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 88 :363–369.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Branquinho MS, Araujo MS, Natal D, Marrelli MT, Rocha RM, Taveira FA, Kloetzel JK, 1996. Anopheles oswaldoi, a potential malaria vector in Acre, Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90 :233.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Carme B, Venturin C, 1999. Malaria in the Americas. Med Trop (Mars) 59 :298–302.

  • 27

    Elliott R, 1968. Studies on man-vector contact in some malarious areas in Colombia. Bull World Health Organ 38 :239–253.

  • 28

    Fajardo P, Alzate A, 1987. Anopheles nuneztovari como vector de malaria en el Bajo Calima, Buenaventura. Colombia Med 18 :14–18.

  • 29

    Forattini OP, Kakitani I, Santos RL, Ueno HM, Kobayashi KM, 1999. Role of Anopheles (Kerteszia) bellator as malaria vector in southeastern Brazil (Diptera:Culicidae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 94 :715–718.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Gabaldon A, 1972. Difficulties confronting malaria eradication. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21 :634–639.

  • 31

    Gabaldon A, 1981. Anopheles nuneztovari: importante vector y agente de malaria refractaria en Venezuela. Bol Dir Malariol Saneamiento Ambiental 21 :28–38.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Hackett LW, 1945. The malaria of the Andean region of South America. Rev Inst Salubridad Enfermedades Trop 6 :239–252.

  • 33

    Hayes JG, Calderon G, Falcon R, Zambrano V, 1987. Newly incriminated vectors of human malaria parasites in Junin Department, Peru. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 3 :418–422.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Hudson JE, 1984. Anopheles darlingi Root in the Suriname rain forest. Bull Entomol Res 74 :129–142.

  • 35

    Laubach HE, Validum L, Bonilla JA, Agar A, Cummings R, Mitchell C, Cuadrado RR, Palmer CJ, 2001. Identification of Anopheles aquasalis as a possible vector of malaria in Guyana, South America. West Ind Med J 50 :319–321.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36

    Lounibos LP, Conn JE, 2000. Malaria vector heterogeneity in South America. Am Entomol 46 :238–249.

  • 37

    Lounibos LP, Conn JE, 1991. Fecundity, parity and adult feeding relationships among Nyssorhynchus malaria vectors from Venezuela. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 86 :57–66.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38

    Lourenco-de-Oliveira R, Heyden R, 1986. Alguns aspectos da ecologia dos mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) de uma area de planicie (Granjas Calabria), em Jacarepagua Rio de Janeiro. IV. Preferencias alimentares quanto ao hospedeiro e frequencia domiciliar. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 81 :15–27.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39

    Oliveira-Pereira YN, Rebelo JM, 2000. Anopheles species in the municipality of Pinheiro (Maranhao), endemic area of malaria. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 33 :443–450.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40

    Panday RS, 1977. Anopheles nuneztovari and malaria transmission in Surinam. Mosq News 37 :728–737.

  • 41

    Rejmankova E, Roberts DR, Harbach RE, Pecor J, Peyton EL, Manguin S, Krieg R, Polanco J, Legters LJ, 1993. Environmental and regional determinants of Anopheles (Diptera:Culicidae) larval distribution in Belize, Central America. Environ Entomol 22 :978–992.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42

    Ribeiro H, Ramos HC, Pires CA, 1990. Sobre os vectores de malaria em Sao Tome e Principe: Garcia de Orta. Ser Zool 15 :135–152.

  • 43

    Roberts DR, Chan O, Pecor J, Rejmankova E, Manguin S, Polanco J, Legters LJ, 1993. Preliminary observations on the changing roles of malaria vectors in Southern Belize. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 9 :456–459.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44

    Rosa-Freitas MG, Lourenco-de-Oliveira R, de Carvalho-Pinto CJ, Flores-Mendoza C, Fernandes Silva-do-Nascimento T, 1998. Anopheline species complexes in Brazil. Current knowledge of those related to malaria transmission. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 93 :651–655.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45

    Rozendaal JA, 1987. Observations on the biology and behaviour of anophelines in the Suriname rainforest with special reference to Anopheles darlingi Root. Cah ORSTOM Ser Entomol Med Parasitol 25 :33–43.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46

    Rubio Y, 1991. Biology of Anopheles nuneztovari and Its Role in Malaria Transmission. Final Report. MVR-VE-1-87-81. Washington, DC: National Academy of Science.

  • 47

    Rubio-Palis Y, Curtis CF, 1992. Biting and resting behaviour of anophelines in western Venezuela and implications for control of malaria transmission. Med Vet Entomol 6 :325–334.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48

    Rubio-Palis Y, Zimmerman RH, 1997. Ecoregional classification of malaria vectors in the Neotropics. J Med Entomol 34 :499–510.

  • 49

    Rubio-Palis Y, 1994. Variation of the vectorial capacity of some anophelines in western Venezuela. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50 :420–424.

  • 50

    Scorza JV, Tallaferra E, Rubiano H, 1976. Comportamiento y susceptibilidad de Anopheles nuneztovari Gabaldon, 1940 a la infeccion con Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax. Bol Direc Malariol San Amb 16 :129–136.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51

    Tadei WP, Thatcher BD, Santos JMM, Scarpassa VM, Rodrigues IB, Rafael MS, 1998. Ecologic observations on anopheline vectors of malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59 :325–335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52

    Tadei WP, Thatchet BD, 2000. Malaria vectors in the Brazilian Amazon: Anopheles of the subgenus Nyssorhynchus. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 42 :87–94.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53

    Zimmerman RH, 1992. Ecology of malaria vectors in the Americas and future direction. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 87 :371–383.

  • 54

    Abdul-Hab JK, 1958. The seasonal occurrence of Anopheles superpictus Grassi and A. sacharovi Favre in Suleimaniya Liwa, north Iraq. Bull Endemic Dis (Baghdad) 2 :152–165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55

    Amr Z, Al-Khalili Y, Arbaji A, 1997. Larval mosquitoes collected from northern Jordan and the Jordan Valley. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 13 :375–378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56

    De Zulueta J, Mur DA, 1972. Malaria eradication in the Near East. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 66 :679–696.

  • 57

    El Said S, Beier JC, Kenawy MA, Morsy ZS, Merdan AI, 1986. Anopheles population dynamics in two malaria endemic villages in Faiyum Governorate, Egypt. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2 :158–163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58

    Eshgy N, Motabar M, Javadian E, Manoutcheri AV, 1976. Biological features of Anopheles fluviatilis and its role in the transmission of malaria in Iran. Trop Geogr Med 28 :41–44.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59

    Eshgy N, 1977. Anopheles multicolor Cambouliu, and its role in the transmission of malaria in Iran. J Entomol Soc Iran 4 :87–88.

  • 60

    Halawani A, Shawarby AA, 1957. Malaria in Egypt. J Egypt Med Assoc 40 :753–792.

  • 61

    Kasap M, 1986. Seasonal variation in populations of Anopheles maculipennis, Anopheles claviger and Culex pipiens in Turkey. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2 :478–481.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62

    Lumsden W, Yofe J, 1950. Anophelism and malaria in Trans Jordan and in the neighboring parts of Palestine and Syria. Leeson H, Lumsden W, Macan T, Yofe J, eds. Anopheles and Malaria in the Near East. London: Lewis and Co. Ltd., 9–108.

  • 63

    Manouchehri AV, Javadian E, Eshighy N, Motabar M, 1976. Ecology of Anopheles stephensi Liston in southern Iran. Trop Geogr Med 28 :228–232.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64

    Manouchehri AV, Zaim M, Emadi AM, 1992. A review of malaria in Iran, 1975–1990. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 8 :381–385.

  • 65

    Margalit J, Tahori AS, 1974. An annotated list of mosquitoes in Israel. Isr J Entomol 9 :77–91.

  • 66

    Postiglione M, Bruno Smiragliam C, Lavagnino A, Gokberk C, Ramsdale C, 1970. A preliminary note on the occurrence in Turkey of the subalpinus form of the A. maculipennis complex. Riv Parassitol 31 :155–158.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67

    Pringle G, 1954. The identification of the adult anopheline mosquitoes of Iraq and neighboring territories. Bull Endemic Dis (Baghdad) 1 :53–76.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68

    Zaim M, Ershadi MR, Manouchehri AV, Hamdi MR, 1986. The use of CDC light traps and other procedures for sampling malaria vectors in southern Iran. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2 :511–515.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69

    Zaim M, Zahirnia AH, Manouchehri AV, 1993. Survival rates of Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles pulcherrimus in sprayed and unsprayed villages in Ghassreghand district, Baluchistan, Iran, 1991. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 9 :421–425.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70

    Zaim M, Manouchehri AV, Motabar M, Mowlaii G, Kayedi MH, Pakdad P, Nazari M, 1992. Ecology of Anopheles pulcherrimus in Baluchistan, Iran. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 8 :293–296.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71

    Zimmerman JH, Hanafi HA, Abbassy MM, 1985. Host-feeding patterns of Culex mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) on farms in Gharbiya Governorate. Egypt J Med Entomol 22 :82–87.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72

    Amerasinghe FP, Amerasinghe PH, Peiris JS, Wirtz RA, 1991. Anopheline ecology and malaria infection during the irrigation development of an area of the Mahaweli Project, Sri Lanka. Am J Trop Med Hyg 45 :226–236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 73

    Asinas CY, 1992. Current status of malaria and control activities in the Philippines. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 23 :55–59.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74

    Baimai V, Kijchalao U, Sawadwongporn P, Green CA, 1988. Geographic distribution and biting behaviour of four species of the Anopheles dirus complex (Diptera:Culicidae) in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 19 :151–161.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75

    Cabrera BD, Arambulo PV III, 1977. Malaria in the Republic of the Philippines. A review. Acta Trop 34 :265–279.

  • 76

    Lim ES, 1992. Current status of malaria in Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 23 :43–49.

  • 77

    Rahman WA, Che’Rus A, Ahmad AH, 1997. Malaria and Anopheles mosquitoes in Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 28 :599–605.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78

    Ratanatham S, Upatham ES, Prasittisuk C, Rojansunan W, Theerasilp N, Tremongkul A, Viyanant V, 1988. Bionomics of Anopheles minimus and its role in malaria transmission in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 19 :283–289.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79

    Torres EP, Salazar NP, Belizario VY, Saul A, 1997. Vector abundance and behaviour in an area of low malaria endemicity in Bataan, the Philippines. Acta Trop 63 :209–220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 80

    Chen B, Harbach RE, Butlin RK, 2002. Molecular and morphological studies on the Anopheles minimus group of mosquitoes in southern China: taxonomic review, distribution and malaria vector status. Med Vet Entomol 16 :253–265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 81

    Feng L-C, 1935. The present status of the knowledge of the mosquitoes of China and their relation to human diseases. Chin Med J 49 :1183–1208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82

    Feng L-C, 1937. The anopheline mosquitoes and the epidemiology of malaria in China. Chin Med J 51 :1005–1020.

  • 83

    Lien JC, 1991. Anopheline mosquitoes and malaria parasites in Taiwan. Gaoxiong Yi Xue Ke Xue Za Zhi 7 :207–223.

  • 84

    Liu C, 1990. Comparative studies on the role of Anopheles anthropophagus and An. sinensis in malaria transmission in China. Chung Kuo Chi Sheng Chung Hsueh Yu Chi Sheng Chung Ping Tsa Chih 11 :360–363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85

    Wu KC, Chen WJ, Wang ZG, Cai XZ, Deng D, Hu LK, Liu ZY, Zhu WG, Guan DH, Jiang WK, 1993. Studies on distribution and behavior of Anopheles minimus and its current role in malaria transmission in Hainan Province at present. Chung Kuo Chi Sheng Chung Hsueh Yu Chi Sheng Chung Ping Tsa Chih 11 :120–123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86

    Zheng KS, 1989. To explore the principal vector of malaria by using vectorial capacity. Chung Kuo Chi Sheng Chung Hsueh Yu Chi Sheng Chung Ping Tsa Chih 10 :162–163.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 87

    Gunasekaran KP, Sahu SS, Parida SK, Sadanandane C, Jambulingam P, Das PK, 1989. Anopheline fauna of Koraput District, Orissa State with particular reference to transmission of malaria. Indian J Med Res 89 :340–343.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 88

    Nagpal BN, Sharma VP, 1983. Mosquitoes of coastal Orissa. Indian J Malariol 20 :141–143.

  • 89

    Sharma VP, 1999. Current scenario of malaria in India. Parassitologia 41 :349–353.

  • 90

    Shrestha SL, Pradhan S, Shrestha PB, Shrestha JD, Rajbhamdari Y, Shrestha GL, Swar TB, Nushin MK, Reisen WK, 1988. Observations on anopheline and malaria and malaria ecology in the far western region of Nepal, 1986. Bull Soc Vector Ecol 13 :332–342.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91

    Afifi SE, Spencer M, Hudson PB, Tavil NW, 1980. Biting prevalence and malaria transmission patterns in the Anopheles punctulatus complex (Diptera:Culicidae) in Papua New Guinea. Aust J Exp Biol Med Sci 58 :1–17.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 92

    Bryan JH, Foley DH, Sutherst RW, 1996. Malaria transmission and climate change in Australia. Med J Aust 164 :345–347.

  • 93

    Cooper RD, Frances SP, Sweeney AW, 1995. Distribution of members of the Anopheles farauti complex in the Northern Territory of Australia. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 11 :66–71.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 94

    Russell RC, 1987. Seasonal abundance, longevity and population age composition of potential malaria vectors in northern and southern Australia. Aust J Zool 35 :289–306.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95

    Sweeney AW, Cooper RD, Frances SP, 1990. Distribution of the sibling species of Anopheles farauti in the Cape York Peninsula, Northern Queensland, Australia. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 6 :425–429.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 96

    Adamovic Z, 1978. Anopheline mosquito species (Diptera, Culicidae) in west Backa, Yugoslavia. Acta Vet 28 :243–249.

  • 97

    Hackett LW, Missiroli A, 1935. The varieties of An. maculipennis and their relation to the distribution of malaria in Europe. Riv Malariol 14 :45–109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 98

    Jaenson TGT, Ameneshewa B, 1991. Perhibernation diet and reproductive condition of female Anopheles messeae in Sweden. Med Vet Entomol 5 :243–252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 99

    Jaenson TGT, Lokki J, Saura A, 1986. Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) and malaria in northern Europe, with special reference to Sweden. J Med Entomol 9 :305–311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100

    Jetten TH, Takken W, 1994. Anophelism without Malaria in Europe; A Review of the Ecology and Distribution of the Genus Anopheles in Europe. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Agricultural University. Wageningen University Papers, 94–95.

  • 101

    Katrin GK, Campbell-Lendrum DH, Davies CE, 2002. A continental risk map for malaria mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) vectors in Europe. J Med Entomol 39 :621–630.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102

    Romi R, Severini C, Pierdominici G, Marchi A, Erbi G, Mantega V, Pinna G, Lavagnino A, Vitale F, 1994. Residual anophelism in Italy: distribution in 4 southern regions. Ann Ist Super Sanita 30 :237–242.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 103

    Romi R, 1999. Anopheles labranchiae, an important malaria vector in Italy, and other potential malaria vectors in southern Europe. Eur Mosq Bull 4 :8–10.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104

    Dorsie RF Jr., Word RA, 1981. Identification and geographical distribution of the mosquitoes of North America, North of Mexico. American Mosquito Control Association, Fresno, CA.

  • 105

    ESRI, 1998. ArcView GIS Version 3.2 for Windows. Redlands, CA: Environmental Systems Research Institute.

  • 106

    LP DAACb, 1999. Global Land Cover Characteristics 1km Database. These data are distributed by the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center located at the U.S. Geological Survey’s EROS Data Center http://edcdaac.usgs.gov.

  • 107

    LP DAACa, 1999. HYDRO1k Elevation Derivative Database. These data are distributed by the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center located at the U.S. Geological Survey’s EROS Data Center http://edcdaac.usgs.gov.

  • 108

    IAMAT, 2002. World Malaria Risk Chart. International Association for Medical Assistance to Travellers. Lewiston, NY. Available at http://www.iamat.org.

  • 109

    IPCC, 1999. International Panel on Climate Change Data Distribution Data Centre CD-ROM, April. Data are distributed at http://ipcc-ddc.cru.uea.ac.uk.

  • 110

    CIESIN, 2000. Gridded Population of the World (GPW), Version 2. Palisades, NY: Center for International Earth Science Information Network, Columbia University. Available at http://sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/plue/gpw.

  • 111

    Moshkovsky SD, Rashina MG, 1951. Epidemiology and medical parasitology for entomologists. Moscow. Unknown publisher. Cited in Detinova, TS, 1962. Age-Grouping Methods in Diptera of Medical Importance with Special Reference to Some Vectors of Malaria. Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • 112

    Bray RS, Gill GS, Killick-Kendrick R, 1984. Current and Possible Future Technique for the Identification of Bloodmeals of Vector Haematophagous Arthropods. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO/MAL/84.1013.

  • 113

    Davis GE, Phillip CB, 1931. The identification of the blood meal in west African mosquitoes by means of the precipitin test: a preliminary report. Am J Hyg 14 :130–141.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114

    Garrett-Jones C, 1964. The human blood index of malaria vectors in relation to epidemiological assessment. Bull World Health Organ 30 :241–261.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 115

    Garrett-Jones C, Shidrawi GR, 1969. Malaria vectorial capacity of a population of Anopheles gambiae, an exercise in epidemiological entomology. Bull World Health Organ 40 :531–545.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 116

    Tempelis CH, Lofy MF, 1963. A modified precipitin method for identification of mosquito blood meals. Am J Trop Med Hyg 12 :825–831.

  • 117

    Weyer F, 1934. Ueber die Technik der Bestimmung des von Steckmucken gesogenen Blutes nach der Praecipitinmethode. Entomol Beih Berlin 1 :76–84.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 118

    Beier JC, Perkins PV, Wirtz RA, Koros J, Diggs D, Gargan TP II, Koech D, 1988. Bloodmeal identification by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), tested on Anopheles (Diptera:Culicidae) in Kenya. J Med Entomol 25 :9–16.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 119

    Savage HM, Duncan JF, Roberts DR, Sholdt LL, 1991. A dip-stick ELISA for rapid detection of human detection of human blood meals in mosquitoes. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7 :16–23.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 120

    Crans WJ, 1969. An agar gel diffusion method for the identification of mosquito bloodmeals. Mosq News 29 :563–566.

  • 121

    Gillies MT, 1961. Studies on the dispersion and survival of Anopheles gambiae Giles in East Africa by means of marking and release experiments. Bull Entomol Res 52 :99–127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 122

    Detinova TS, Beklemishev WN, Bertram DS, 1963. Methodes a Appliquer pour Classer le Groupes d’Age les Dipteres Presentant une Importance Medicale. Serie de Monographies 47. Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • 123

    Breeland S, 1972. Studies on the ecology of Anopheles albimanus.Am J Trop Med Hyg 21 :751–754.

  • 124

    Bruce-Chwatt LJ, Gockel CW, 1960. A study of the blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles mosquitoes through precipitin tests. Bull World Health Organ 22 :685–720.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 125

    Garrett-Jones C, Boreham PFL, Pant CP, 1980. Feeding habits of anophelines (Diptera: Culicidae) in 1971–78, with reference to the human blood index: a review. Bull Entomol Res 70 :165–185.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 126

    Hill RB, 1934. Feeding habits of some Venezuelan Anopheles. Am J Trop Med 14 :425–429.

  • 127

    Loyola EG, Gonzalez-Ceron L, Rodriguez MH, Arredondo-Jimenez JI, Bennet S, Down DN, 1993. Anopheles albimanus (Diptera:Culicidae) host selection patterns in three ecological areas of the coastal plains of Chiapas, Southern Mexico. J Med Entomol 30 :518–523.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 128

    Mekuria Y, Granados R, Tidwell MA, Williams DC, Wirtz RA, Roberts DR, 1991. Malaria transmission potential by Anopheles mosquitoes of Dajabon, Dominican Republic. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7 :456–461.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 129

    WHO/Lister Institute, 1960. A study of the blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles mosquitos through precipitin tests. Results of collaborative work for the period 1955–59 and their application to malaria eradication programmes. Bull World Health Organ 22 :685–720.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 130

    Huang QL, Zhou JX, Zhang MC, Xie JX, 1992. Observation on malaria transmission intensity at a stone-pit of the mountain area in Baoan County, Guangdong Province. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi 10 :124–127.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 131

    Deane LM, Vernin SC, Damasceno RG, 1949. Avaliacao das preferencias alimentares das femeas de Anopheles darlingi e Anopheles aquasalis em Belem, por meio de provas de precipitina. Rev Serv Esp Saude Publica 2 :793–808.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 132

    Flores-Mendoza C, Cunha RA, Rocha DS, Lourenco-de-Oliveira R, 1996. Identification of food sources of Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera:Culicidae) by precipitin test in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rev Saude Publica 30 :129–134.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 133

    Bogh C, Clarke SE, Pinder M, Sanyang F, Lindsay SW, 2001. Effect of passive zooprophylaxis on malaria transmission in the Gambia. J Med Entomol 38 :822–828.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 134

    Charlwood JD, Qassim M, Elnsur EI, Donnelly M, Petrarca V, Billingsley PF, Pinto J, Smith T, 2001. The impact of indoor spraying with malathion on malaria in refugee camps in eastern Sudan. Acta Trop