• 1

    WHO, 2002. Malaria in Africa. Geneva: World Health Organization, RBM Newsletter March 2002. www.who.int/inf-fs/en/1InformationSheet03.pdf.

  • 2

    PAHO, 2003. Health Situation in the Americas: Basic Indicators, 1995–1998. Incidence of Diseases under Epidemiological Surveillance. Washington, DC: Pan Amercian Health Organization. February: 2003.

  • 3

    Passos ADC, Fialho RR, 1998. Malária: aspectos epidemiológicos e de controle. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 31 (suppl II):93–105.

  • 4

    Trigg PI, Kondrachine AV, 1998. Commentary: malaria control in the 1990s. Bull World Health Organ 76 :11–16.

  • 5

    Gilles HM, 1993. Epidemiology of malaria. Gilles HM, Warrell DA, eds. Bruce-Chwatt’s Essential Malariology. London: Edward Arnold, 124–163.

  • 6

    MacDonald G, 1957. The Epidemiology and Control of Malaria. London: Oxford University Press.

  • 7

    Duarte EC, Fontes CJF, 2002. Associação entre produção anual de ouro em garimpos e incidência de malária em Mato Grosso-Brasil, 1985–1996. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 35 :665–668.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Miranda JG, Cipriani M, Martires RAC, Giaconi WJ, 1997. Atividades Garimpeiras no Brasil: Aspectos Técnicos, Econômicos e Sociais. Rio de Janeiro : CETEM/CNPq.

  • 9

    de Oliveira RL, 1989. Some observations on the mosquitoes of Indian settlements in Xingu National Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, with emphasis on malaria vectors. Rev Bras Biol 49 :393–397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Roberts DR, Alecrim WD, 1991. Behavioral response of Anopheles darlingi to DDT-sprayed house walls in Amazon. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 25 :210–217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Ministério da Saúde do Brasil, 1996. Manual de Terapêutica de Malária. Brasilia: Ministério da Saúde-Fundação Nacional de Saúde.

  • 12

    Lachin JM, 1981. Introduction to sample size determination and power analysis for clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 2 :93–113.

  • 13

    PAHO/WHO, 1988. Diagnostico de Malaria. Lópes-Antunano F, Schmunis G, eds. Publicación Científica no. 512. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization-World Health Organization.

  • 14

    Dean GA, Dean JA, Burton AH, Dicker RC, 1994. EpiInfo, Version 6: A Word Processing, Database, and Statistics Program for Epidemiology on Microcomputers. Stone Mountain, GA: USD, Incorporated.

  • 15

    StataCorp, 1999. Stata Statistical Software: Release 6.0. College Station, TX: Stata Corporation.

  • 16

    Lee ET, 1992. Statistical Methods for Survival Data Analysis. Second edition. Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

  • 17

    Cox DR, 1972. Regression models and life tables. J R Stat Soc 34 :187–220.

  • 18

    Grambsch PM, Therneau TM, 1994. Proportional hazards tests and diagnostics based on weighted residuals. Biometrika 81 :515–526.

  • 19

    Kleinbaum DG, Kupper LL, Muller KE, 1988. Applied Regression Analysis and Other Multivariable Methods. Boston: PWS-Kent Publishing Company.

  • 20

    Camargo LM, Ferreira MU, Krieger H, De Camargo EP, Da Silva LP, 1994. Unstable hypoendemic malaria in Rondonia (western Amazon region, Brazil): epidemic outbreaks and work-associated incidence in an agro-industrial rural settlement. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51 :16–25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Camargo LM, dal Colletto GM, Ferreira MU, Gurgel S de M, Escobar AL, Marques A, Krieger H, Camargo EP, da Silva LH, 1996. Hypoendemic malaria in Rondonia (Brazil, western Amazon region): seasonal variation and risk groups in an urban locality. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55 :32–38.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Chaves SS, Rodrigues LC, 2000. An initial examination of the epidemiology of malaria in the state of Roraima, in the Brazilian Amazon basin. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 42 :269–275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Bloland PB, Ruebush TK, McCormick JB, Ayisi J, Boriga DA, Oloo AJ, Beach R, Hawley W, Lal A, Nahlen B, Udhayakumar V, Campbell CC, 1999. Longitudinal cohort study of the epidemiology of malaria infections in an area of intense ma-

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ERRATA

In Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 172–179, the names of the authors in the Dong Nai Study Group were inadvertently omitted. The names of those in the study group are as follows:

Nguyen Van My, Nguyen Thi Que Phuong, Nguyen Thi Thanh Ha, Ta Thi Tuyet Mai, Nguyen Thi Tuyet Anh, Truong Dinh Luat, Timothy Endy, Mary Jane Cardosa, Phaik Hooi Tio, Jean Paul Charlieu, Nicholas White, and Jeremy Farrar

The journal staff regrets the error.

Due to a printing error, page 236 did not appear in the March issue of the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 229–237). The missing page follows.

slightly inflated estimations of malaria rates and prevalences. Therefore, study results should not be generalized to the entire year. Because selection bias was identified in this study due to follow-up type, all multivariable models assessing associations with malaria outcomes during the study period were adjusted accordingly. Because some study variables, such as those regarding days of work lost and malaria episodes during lifetime, rely on individual recall, a certain degree of recall error may be present in this study. However, previous studies have demonstrated a high validity of self-reported malaria examinations by the study population.13,29

This study provided relevant information on the epidemiology of malaria in a hypoendemic Brazilian Amazon setting. It describes the sociodemographic characteristics of the individuals affected by malaria, their history of previous exposure and migration, present behaviors, and patterns of use of the malaria services, as well as hypotheses of the type of transmission expected to be more relevant in the area. Moreover, the study findings support the hypothesis that malaria transmission in this area was not sufficient to fully develop naturally acquired immunity against clinical manifestations. This information may help guide decision makers to specify effective control measures targeted to this population and transmission situation. Moreover, it provides measurable evidence of the burden of malaria in this area, especially regarding the days of work lost and days of hospital stay, which may influence political commitment with regard to this relevant public health problem. In addition, for researchers in particular, these results may be useful in guiding them in the choice of study variables and in providing background data and estimates for future studies in similar settings.

Authors’ addresses: Elisabeth Carmen Duarte, Pan American Health Organization, 525 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037, Telephone: 202-974-3481, Fax: 202-974-3674, E-mail: eduarte@ terra.com.br. Theresa W. Gyorkos, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4, Telephone: 514-934-1934 extension 44721, Fax: 514-934-8293, E-mail: theresa.gyorkos@mcgill.ca. Lorrin Pang, Maui County Hawaii Department of Health, 54 High Street, Room 301, Wailuku, HI 96793, Telephone: 808-984-8200, Fax: 808-984-8222, E-mail: panghil@mauigateway.com. Michal Abrahamowicz: Division of Clinical Epidemiology, Montreal General Hospital, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4, Telephone: 514-934-1934 extension 44712, Fax: 514-934-8293, E-mail: michal.abrahamowicz@mcgill.ca.

Acknowledgments: We thank all technicians and medical practitioners who helped us in carrying out the interviews, laboratory examinations, and medical examinations during the fieldwork. We also are very grateful for the collaboration of the entire study population of Leonislândia.

Financial support: This study was supported by the World Health Organization-Division of Tropical Disease Research (M8/181/4/ D.169/JER ID-970021), the Pan-American Health Organization (HDP/HDR/RG-T/BRA/1473) and Fundaçâo Nacional de Saude (Health Ministry of Brazil-National Health Foundation). Elisabeth Carmen Duarte was supported by a Tropical Diseases Research fellowship (M8/181/4/D.169/JER ID-910736), Theresa W. Gyorkos was supported by grants from the National Health Research and Development Program of Health Canada and the Fonds de la Re-cherche en Santé du Quebéc, and Michal Abrahamowicz was a recipient of a Scientist Award from the Medical Research Council of Canada.

REFERENCES

  • 1

    WHO, 2002. Malaria in Africa. Geneva: World Health Organization, RBM Newsletter March 2002. www.who.int/inf-fs/en/1InformationSheet03.pdf.

  • 2

    PAHO, 2003. Health Situation in the Americas: Basic Indicators, 1995–1998. Incidence of Diseases under Epidemiological Surveillance. Washington, DC: Pan Amercian Health Organization. February: 2003.

  • 3

    Passos ADC, Fialho RR, 1998. Malária: aspectos epidemiológicos e de controle. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 31 (suppl II):93–105.

  • 4

    Trigg PI, Kondrachine AV, 1998. Commentary: malaria control in the 1990s. Bull World Health Organ 76 :11–16.

  • 5

    Gilles HM, 1993. Epidemiology of malaria. Gilles HM, Warrell DA, eds. Bruce-Chwatt’s Essential Malariology. London: Edward Arnold, 124–163.

  • 6

    MacDonald G, 1957. The Epidemiology and Control of Malaria. London: Oxford University Press.

  • 7

    Duarte EC, Fontes CJF, 2002. Associação entre produção anual de ouro em garimpos e incidência de malária em Mato Grosso-Brasil, 1985–1996. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 35 :665–668.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Miranda JG, Cipriani M, Martires RAC, Giaconi WJ, 1997. Atividades Garimpeiras no Brasil: Aspectos Técnicos, Econômicos e Sociais. Rio de Janeiro : CETEM/CNPq.

  • 9

    de Oliveira RL, 1989. Some observations on the mosquitoes of Indian settlements in Xingu National Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, with emphasis on malaria vectors. Rev Bras Biol 49 :393–397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Roberts DR, Alecrim WD, 1991. Behavioral response of Anopheles darlingi to DDT-sprayed house walls in Amazon. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 25 :210–217.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Ministério da Saúde do Brasil, 1996. Manual de Terapêutica de Malária. Brasilia: Ministério da Saúde-Fundação Nacional de Saúde.

  • 12

    Lachin JM, 1981. Introduction to sample size determination and power analysis for clinical trials. Control Clin Trials 2 :93–113.

  • 13

    PAHO/WHO, 1988. Diagnostico de Malaria. Lópes-Antunano F, Schmunis G, eds. Publicación Científica no. 512. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization-World Health Organization.

  • 14

    Dean GA, Dean JA, Burton AH, Dicker RC, 1994. EpiInfo, Version 6: A Word Processing, Database, and Statistics Program for Epidemiology on Microcomputers. Stone Mountain, GA: USD, Incorporated.

  • 15

    StataCorp, 1999. Stata Statistical Software: Release 6.0. College Station, TX: Stata Corporation.

  • 16

    Lee ET, 1992. Statistical Methods for Survival Data Analysis. Second edition. Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

  • 17

    Cox DR, 1972. Regression models and life tables. J R Stat Soc 34 :187–220.

  • 18

    Grambsch PM, Therneau TM, 1994. Proportional hazards tests and diagnostics based on weighted residuals. Biometrika 81 :515–526.

  • 19

    Kleinbaum DG, Kupper LL, Muller KE, 1988. Applied Regression Analysis and Other Multivariable Methods. Boston: PWS-Kent Publishing Company.

  • 20

    Camargo LM, Ferreira MU, Krieger H, De Camargo EP, Da Silva LP, 1994. Unstable hypoendemic malaria in Rondonia (western Amazon region, Brazil): epidemic outbreaks and work-associated incidence in an agro-industrial rural settlement. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51 :16–25.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Camargo LM, dal Colletto GM, Ferreira MU, Gurgel S de M, Escobar AL, Marques A, Krieger H, Camargo EP, da Silva LH, 1996. Hypoendemic malaria in Rondonia (Brazil, western Amazon region): seasonal variation and risk groups in an urban locality. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55 :32–38.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Chaves SS, Rodrigues LC, 2000. An initial examination of the epidemiology of malaria in the state of Roraima, in the Brazilian Amazon basin. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 42 :269–275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Bloland PB, Ruebush TK, McCormick JB, Ayisi J, Boriga DA, Oloo AJ, Beach R, Hawley W, Lal A, Nahlen B, Udhayakumar V, Campbell CC, 1999. Longitudinal cohort study of the epidemiology of malaria infections in an area of intense ma-

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