Authors’ current addresses: Heidi K. Goethert, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University School of Veterinary Medicine, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA 01536, Telephone: 508-887-7929, Fax: 508-839-7911, E-mail:
Acknowledgments: This is a contribution of the University of Massachusetts Nantucket Field Station. We thank Dr. Patricia Holman for helpful discussions, B. divergens antigen, and access to unpublished DNA sequences.
Financial support: This work was supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants AI-39002, AI-37993, AI-42402, and CDC U50/ CCU 119560. Heidi K. Goethert was supported, in part, by NIH Training Grant AI-07535.
Steere AC, Broderick TF, Malawista SE, 1978. Erythema chronicum migrans and Lyme arthritis: epidemiologic evidence for a tick vector. Am J Epidem 108 :312–321.
Steere AC, Malawista SE, 1979. Cases of Lyme disease in the United States: locations correlated with distribution of Ixodes dammini.Ann Intern Med 91 :730–733.
Telford SR III, Dawson JE, Katavolos P, Warner CK, Kolbert CP, Persing DH, 1996. Perpetuation of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in a deer tick-rodent cycle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93 :6209–6214.
Telford SR III, Armstrong PM, Katavolos P, Foppa I, Garcia AS, Wilson ML, Spielman A, 1997. A new tick-born encephalitis-like virus infecting New England deer ticks, Ixodes dammini.Emerg Infect Dis 3 :165–170.
Spielman A, Wilson ML, Levine JF, Piesman J, 1985. Ecology of Ixodes dammini-borne human babesiosis and Lyme disease. Annu Rev Entomol 30 :439–460.
Levin ML, Fish D, 2000. Immunity reduces reservoir host competence of Peromyscus leucopus for Ehrlichia phagocytophila.Infect Immun 68 :1514–1518.
Van Buskirk J, Ostfeld RS, 1998. Habitat heterogeneity, dispersal, and local risk of exposure to Lyme disease. Ecol Appl 8 :365–378.
Telford SR III, Spielman A, 1989. Competence of a rabbit-feeding Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) as a vector of the Lyme disease spirochete. J Med Entomol 26 :118–121.
Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, McAninch JB, 1990. Serologic analyses of cottontail rabbits for antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi.J Clin Microbiol 28 :890–893.
Anderson JF, Magnarelli LA, LeFevre RB, Andreadis TG, McAninch JB, Perng G-C, Johnson RC, 1989. Antigenically variable Borrelia burgdorferi isolated from cottontail rabbits and Ixodes dentatus in rural and urban areas. J Clin Microbiol 27 :13–20.
Goethert HK, Telford SR III, 2003. Enzootic transmission of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis among cottontail rabbits. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 :633–637.
Theil KW, McCloskey CM, Scott DP, 1993. Serologic evidence for rabbit syncytium virus in eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) in Ohio. J Wildl Dis 29 :470–474.
Armstrong PM, Katavolos P, Caporale DA, Smith RP, Spielman A, Telford SR III, 1998. Diversity of Babesia infecting deer ticks (Ixodes dammini). Am J Trop Med Hyg 58 :739–742.
Goethert HK, Telford SR III, 2003. What is Babesia microti? Parasitology (in press).
Kjemtrup A, Thomford J, Robinson T, Conrad P, 2000. Phylogenetic relationships of human and wildlife piroplasm isolates in the western U. S. inferred from 18S nuclear small subunit RNA gene. Parasitology 120 :487–493.
Krause PJ, Telford SR III, Ryan R, Hurta AB, Kwasnik I, Luger S, Niederman J, Gerber M, Spielman A, 1991. Geographical and temporal distribution of babesiosis in Connecticut. J Clin Microbiol 29 :1–4.
Beattie JFJ, Michelson ML, Holman PJ, 2002. Acute babesiosis caused by Babesia divergens in a resident of Kentucky. N Engl J Med 347 :697–698.
Dalrymple BP, 1990. Cloning and characterization of the rRNA genes and flanking regions from Babesia bovis: use of the genes as strain discriminating probes. Mol Biochem Para 43 :117–124.
Reddy GR, Chakrabarti D, Yowell CA, Dame JB, 1991. Sequence microheterogeneity of the three small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of Babesia bigemina: expression in erthrocyte culture. Nucleic Acids Res 19 :3641–3645.
Bishop R, Gobright E, Spooner P, Allsopp B, Sohanpal B, Collins N, 2000. Microsequence heterogeneity and expression of the LSU rRNA genes within the two single copy ribosomal transcription units of Theileria parva.Gene 257 :299–305.
Chae J, Waghela S, Craig TM, Kocan AA, Wagner GG, Holman PJ, 1999. Two Theileria cervi SSU RRNA gene sequence types found in isolates from white-tailed deer and elk in North America. J Wildl Dis 35: 458–465.
Spielman A, Etkind P, Piesman J, Ruebush TK II, Juranek DD, Jacobs MS, 1981. Reservoir hosts of human babesiosis on Nantucket Island. Am J Trop Med Hyg 30 :560–565.
Donnelly J, Peirce MA, 1975. Experiments on the transmission of Babesia divergens to cattle by the tick Ixodes ricinus.Int J Parasitol 5: 363–367.
Joyner LP, Davies SFM, Kendall SB, 1963. The experimental transmission of Babesia divergens by Ixodes ricinus.Exp Parasitol 14 :367–373.
Lewis D, Young ER, 1980. The transmission of a human strain of Babesia divergens by Ixodes ricinus ticks. J Parasitol 66 :359–360.
Herwaldt BL, Persing DH, Precigout EA, Goff WL, Mathiesen DA, Taylor PW, Eberhard ML, Gorenflot AF, 1996. A fatal case of babesiosis in Missouri: identification of another piroplasm that infects humans. Ann Intern Med 124 :643–650.
Armstrong PM, Brunet LR, Spielman A, Telford SR III, 2001. Risk of Lyme disease: perceptions of residents of a Lone Star tick-infested community. Bull World Health Organ 79 :916–925.
Ayres JC, Feemster R, 1948. Epidemiology of tularemia in Massachusetts with a review of the literature. N Engl J Med 238 :187–194.