Authors’ addresses: Chansuda Wongsrichanalai, R. Scott Miller, Wilson J. Liao, and Amy L. Pickard, Department of Immunology and Medicine, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, 315/6 Rajvithi Road, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. Clinton K. Murray, Infectious Disease Service, Brooke Army Medical Center, 3851 Roger Brooke Drive, Fort Sam Houston, TX 78234-6200. Michael Gray, Veterinary Command Food Analysis and Diagnostic Laboratory, Fort Sam Houston, TX 75234-6232. Philip McDaniel, Kwai River Christian Hospital, Sangkhlaburi, Kanchanaburi 71240, Thailand. Alan J. Magill, Division of Communicable Diseases and Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Avenue, Silver Spring, MD 20910-7500.
Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the Fever Study Team of the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences and the staffs of the Kwai River Christian Hospital and the Vector Borne Diseases Control Unit No. 9 (Sangkhlaburi) for their support.
Financial support: This study was supported by the U.S. Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS).
Disclaimer: The opinions or assertions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be construed as reflecting the official positions of the U.S. Army or U.S. Department of Defense.
Sulzer AJ, Sulzer KR, Cantella RA, Colichon H, Latorre CR, Welch M, 1978. Study of coinciding foci of malaria and leptospirosis in the Peruvian Amazon area. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 72 :76–83.
Ravindran B, Sahoo PK, Dash AP, 1998. Lymphatic filariasis and malaria: concomitant parasitism in Orissa, India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92 :21–23.
Graham SM, Walsh AL, Molyneux EM, Phiri AJ, Molyneux ME, 2000. Clinical presentation of non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteraemia in Malawian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 :310–314.
Levett PN, Branch SL, Edwards CN, 2000. Detection of dengue infection in patients investigated for leptospirosis in Barbados. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 :112–114.
Flannery B, Pereira MM, Velloso L de F, Carvalho C de C, de Codes LG, Orrico G de S, Dourado CM, Riley LW, Reis MG, Ko AI, 2001. Referral pattern of leptospirosis cases during a large urban epidemic of dengue. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65: 657–663.
Kudesia G, Christie P, Walker E, Pinkerton I, Lloyd G, 1988. Dual infection with Leptospira and hantavirus (letter). Lancet 1 :1397.
Markotic A, Kuzman I, Babic K, Gagro A, Nichol S, Ksiazek TG, Rabatic S, Dekaris D, 2002. Double trouble: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and leptospirosis. Scand J Infect Dis 34 :221–224.
Levi GC, 1998. Management of opportunistic infections in HIV(+) patients: contrasts between Europe and South America. Braz J Infect Dis 2 :118–127.
Smits HL, Hartskeerl RA, Terpstra WJ, 2000. International multi-centre evaluation of a dipstick assay for human leptospirosis. Trop Med Int Health 5 :124–128.
Effler PV, Bogard AK, Domen HY, Katz AR, Higa HY, Sasaki DM, 2002. Evaluation of eight rapid screening tests for acute leptospirosis in Hawaii. J Clin Microbiol 40 :1464–1469.
Faine S, 1988. Leptospirosis. Turano A, ed. Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: Principles and Practice. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Panaphut T, Domrongkitchaiporn S, Thinkamrop B, 2002. Prognostic factors of death in leptospirosis: a prospective cohort study in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Int J Infect Dis 6 :52–59.
Tangkanakul W, Tharmaphornpil P, Plikaytis BD, Bragg S, Poonsuksombat D, Choomkasien P, Kingnate D, Ashford DA, 2000. Risk factors associated with leptospirosis in northeastern Thailand, 1998. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63 :204–208.
Niwattayakul K, Homvijitkul J, Khow O, Sitprija V, 2002. Leptospirosis in northeastern Thailand: hypotension and complications. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 33 :155–160.