The role of agricultural use of insecticides in resistance to pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Burkina Faso.

Abdoulaye DiabateLaboratoire d'Entomologie et de Parasitologie, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. a_diabate@hotmail.com

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Thierry BaldetLaboratoire d'Entomologie et de Parasitologie, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. a_diabate@hotmail.com

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Fabrice ChandreLaboratoire d'Entomologie et de Parasitologie, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. a_diabate@hotmail.com

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Martin AkoobetoLaboratoire d'Entomologie et de Parasitologie, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. a_diabate@hotmail.com

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T Robert GuiguemdeLaboratoire d'Entomologie et de Parasitologie, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. a_diabate@hotmail.com

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Frédéric DarrietLaboratoire d'Entomologie et de Parasitologie, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. a_diabate@hotmail.com

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Cécile BrenguesLaboratoire d'Entomologie et de Parasitologie, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. a_diabate@hotmail.com

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Pierre GuilletLaboratoire d'Entomologie et de Parasitologie, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. a_diabate@hotmail.com

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Janet HemingwayLaboratoire d'Entomologie et de Parasitologie, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. a_diabate@hotmail.com

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Graham J SmallLaboratoire d'Entomologie et de Parasitologie, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. a_diabate@hotmail.com

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Jean Marc HougardLaboratoire d'Entomologie et de Parasitologie, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. a_diabate@hotmail.com

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Agricultural use of insecticides is involved in the selection of resistance to these compounds in field populations of mosquitoes in Burkina Faso. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was resistant to permethrin and DDT in cotton-growing and urban areas, but susceptible in areas with limited insecticide selection pressure (rice fields and control areas). Nevertheless, resistance to these insecticides was observed in a village on the outskirts of the rice fields at the end of the rainy season, suggesting that the latter population of mosquitoes had migrated from the surrounding cotton villages into the rice fields. A seasonal variation of resistance observed in the cotton-growing area is related to the distribution of the molecular M and S forms of An. gambiae, since resistance to pyrethroids has so far only been reported in the S form. Pyrethroid resistance in west African An. gambiae was conferred by target site insensitivity through a knockdown resistance (kdr)-like mutation, which was present at high frequencies in mosquitoes in the cotton-growing and urban areas.

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