Exacerbation of HIV viral load simultaneous with asymptomatic reactivation of chronic Chagas' disease.

Ana Marli C SartoriClinic of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases/AIDS Clinic, Central Laboratory Division, Laboratory of Medical Investigation of Parasitology, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil. amsartori@sti.com.br

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Hélio H Caiaffa-FilhoClinic of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases/AIDS Clinic, Central Laboratory Division, Laboratory of Medical Investigation of Parasitology, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil. amsartori@sti.com.br

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Rita C BezerraClinic of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases/AIDS Clinic, Central Laboratory Division, Laboratory of Medical Investigation of Parasitology, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil. amsartori@sti.com.br

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Carmem do S GuilhermeClinic of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases/AIDS Clinic, Central Laboratory Division, Laboratory of Medical Investigation of Parasitology, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil. amsartori@sti.com.br

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Marta H LopesClinic of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases/AIDS Clinic, Central Laboratory Division, Laboratory of Medical Investigation of Parasitology, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil. amsartori@sti.com.br

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Maria Aparecida Shikanai-YasudaClinic of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases/AIDS Clinic, Central Laboratory Division, Laboratory of Medical Investigation of Parasitology, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo, Brazil. amsartori@sti.com.br

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Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection can reactivate in patients with immunosuppression related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, resulting in severe meningoencephalitis or myocarditis and high parasitemia. The effects of T. cruzi on HIV infection are unknown. We describe an HIV-infected patient with chronic Chagas' disease who experienced an asymptomatic T. cruzi reactivation characterized by the finding of the parasite in direct microscopic examination of blood. The patient's HIV viral load had increased simultaneously with the exacerbation of T. cruzi parasitemia and decreased to previous levels after successful antiparasitic treatment. This otherwise unexplained finding suggests that T. cruzi infection might up-regulate HIV replication, which may affect HIV disease progression. Asymptomatic reactivation of Chagas' disease has not been reported before. This could mean that the severe clinical manifestations related to the reactivation of trypanosomiasis are just the tip of the iceberg.

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