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Following studies showing an association between helminth infections and protection from cerebral malaria, we compared 22 patients with malaria-associated acute renal failure with 157 patients with moderately severe malaria. Helminths were associated with protection from renal failure (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.16 [0.03-0.85], P = 0.03). Helminth-infected controls were less likely to have jaundice (AOR, 0.39 [0.16-0.96], P = 0.04) or to have peripheral mature schizonts (AOR, 0.2 [0.07-0.62], P = 0.005) than controls without helminths. This suggested that preexisting helminth infections may have been protective by influencing sequestration and obstructive jaundice, 2 possible determinants of acute tubular necrosis.