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We conducted a case record study comparing liver tests abnormalities in 20 malaria-related acute renal failure cases without cerebral malaria, 52 cerebral malaria cases without other organ impairment, 189 cases of nonsevere malaria associated with a high parasite burden, and 131 cases of mild Plasmodiumfalciparum malaria. Jaundice and hepatomegaly were significantly associated with renal failure (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-8.6, P = 0.01; and AOR, 1.7 95% CI, 1.13-2.4, P = 0.01) but not with cerebral malaria (AOR, 1, 95% CI, 0.5-2, P = 0.8; and AOR, 1.08, 95% CI, 0.8-1.8, P = 0.5). Patients with acute renal failure were significantly older and had increased liver abnormalities compared with other groups. Although an increase in the proportion of mature schizonts over ring forms was significantly associated with cerebral malaria, it did not seem to have affected acute renal failure. These results suggested that cytoadherence was not the main determinant for renal failure and that jaundice itself may have potentiated the effects of hypovolemia.