There are no recognized orally administered treatments for any of the leishmaniases. The 8-aminoquinoline WR6026 is an orally administered analog of primaquine that cured 50% of patients with kala-azar in Kenya at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 28 days. A further phase 2, open-label, dose-escalating safety and efficacy study was performed for kala-azar in Brazil. Cure rates for Brazilian patients treated for 28 days were as follows: 1 mg/kg/day: 0 of 4 (0%); 1.5 mg/kg/day: 1 of 6 (17%); 2.0 mg/kg/day: 4 of 6 (67%); 2.5 mg/kg/day: 1 of 5 (20%); and 3.25 mg/kg/day: 0 of 1 (0%). Nephrotoxicity that was not anticipated from preclinical animal studies or from phase 1 studies was seen at 2.5 mg/kg/day in 2 patients and in the single patient administered 3.25 mg/kg/day. WR6026 demonstrated the unusual clinical features of lack of increased efficacy against Brazilian kala-azar with increased dosing above 2 mg/kg/day and toxicity that was not present in previous investigations.