Schistosomiasis mansoni infection that occurs concurrently with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia favors the formation of pyogenic liver abscess. The present experimental study in mice evaluated the following aspects of the relationship between infection with Schistosoma mansoni and liver abscess caused by S. aureus: a) the role of the eggs of S. mansoni in the genesis of the abscesses; b) the influence of different phases of schistosomiasis in the development of liver abscesses; and c) the effect of the treatment of schistosomiasis on the development of the abscesses. Macroscopic and histopathological study showed multiple liver abscesses around granulomas of S. mansoni in the acute and chronic phases of schistosomiasis. Treatment of acute schistosomiasis before experimentally-induced bacteremia did not prevent the formation of liver abscess. The study findings indicate that granulomas around S. mansoni eggs and worms lodged in the liver provide a focus and substrate for pyogenic abscesses caused by S. aureus.