D2A21, a novel peptide antibiotic has in vitro activity against a wide spectrum of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). In this study we tested the hypothesis that intravaginal D2A21 would interfere with acquisition of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in a modified mouse model. T. vaginalis infections of estrogenized young mice pretreated with Lactobacillus vaginalis or Lactobacillus rhamnosus were more frequent and persistent than those in mice pre-treated with Lactobacillus gasseri or Lactobacillus acidophilus. One hundred percent T. vaginalis infection was achieved for 2-4 days post-challenge when intravaginal L. rhamnosus pre-treatments were given to estrogenized mice 48 hr prior to a single T. vaginalis challenge. Estrogenized mice pre-treated with L. rhamnosus were pre-medicated with intravaginal placebo gel, 0.5% or 2% D2A21 gel, or 500 microg/mL metronidazole gel prior to T. vaginalis challenge. Both 2% D2A21 and metronidazole gels were significantly more efficacious (10% or none infected) than placebo gel (53% infected) in preventing vaginal T. vaginalis infections in mice.