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Following the reemergence of Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus in southeastern Mauritania in 1998, an entomological survey was undertaken in the boundary area in Senegal to assess the extent of the virus circulation. During this study, RVF virus (36 strains) was isolated for the first time from Culex poicilipes in nature. The possible role of Cx. poicilipes as an RVF vector is discussed regarding its biology and ecology.