We examined the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium parvum in children aged 6 months to 13 years living in 1) colonias along the border (n = 105), 2) a clinic in an urban border community (n = 65), and 3) clinics in a large urban nonborder area (n = 109). Serum IgG and IgA anticryptosporidial antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall, 70.2% (196/279) of subjects had detectable C. parvum antibodies. Prevalence rates were higher (93/105 [89%]) in the colonias and urban border community (53/65 [82%]) compared to the urban nonborder community (50/109 [46%]). Within colonias, independent risk factors for C. parvum infection included consumption of municipal water instead of bottled water, older age, and lower household income. Children living along the Texas-Mexico border have a higher rate of infection with C. parvum compared to children living in a large nonborder urban area. Within colonias, C. parvum infection was associated with source of water supply, age, and socioeconomic status.