The epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Egypt: Qalyubia Governorate.

M HabibQalyub Center for Field and Applied Research, Qalyub Governorate, Ministry of Health, Egypt.

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F Abdel AzizQalyub Center for Field and Applied Research, Qalyub Governorate, Ministry of Health, Egypt.

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F GamilQalyub Center for Field and Applied Research, Qalyub Governorate, Ministry of Health, Egypt.

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B L ClineQalyub Center for Field and Applied Research, Qalyub Governorate, Ministry of Health, Egypt.

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The primary objectives of this study, carried out in Qalyubia Governorate in Egypt (south-central Nile Delta), were to continue tracking historical trends of infection prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium, determine whether satellites (ezbas) of mother villages differed significantly with respect to schistosomiasis transmission, and to asses schistosomiasis-induced morbidity on a population basis using ultrasonography. Our study revealed that S. haematobium has virtually disappeared from Qalyubia governorate, and that S. mansoni prevalence continues to decline slowly (17% in 1991 compared with 19% in 1990). The prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis was actually higher in the mother villages than in the ezbas of the same villages, indicating that prevalence based on surveys of villages alone did not (at least for Qalyubia) cause underestimates of true prevalence. (A mother village is the large village in an area that includes hamlets or ezbas. In many areas, the infection rate in ezbas is significantly higher than in the larger central village.) Ultrasonographic studies revealed that less than 3% of the population had stage 2 or stage 3 periportal fibrosis, commonly associated with chronic schistosomiasis mansoni. This low level of morbidity was consistent with earlier data from Qalyubia, which also showed a low level of S. mansoni-induced morbidity in this governorate.

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