Barriers to gene flow between Pacific and Atlantic coast populations of Anopheles albimanus were reported in an earlier study of variation in the intergenic spacer of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. We examined the distribution of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes among A. albimanus populations to test for gene flow barriers with an independent genetic marker. A region of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 1,105 mosquitoes collected from 16 locations in Guatemala and in single collections from Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, and Venezuela. The PCR products were tested for variation using single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and 45 haplotypes were detected. Haplotype frequencies did not vary between coasts in Guatemala. Populations within approximately 200 km of one another were panmictic. However, at distances > 200 km, FST and geographic distances were correlated suggesting that populations are isolated by distance.