To evaluate the possible role of parasitemia on Chagas' disease reactivation in Chagas' disease/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection cases and the impact of HIV coinfection on Trypanosoma cruzi genetic diversity, 71 patients with Chagas' disease (34 HIV+ and 37 HIV-) were surveyed. Moreover, 92 T. cruzi stocks from 47 chronic chagasic patients (29 HIV+ and 18 HIV-) were isolated and analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and a random amplified polymorphic DNA procedure. High parasitemia appeared to play a major role in cases of Chagas' disease reactivation. In HIV+ patients, the genetic diversity and population structure (clonality) of T. cruzi was similar to that previously observed in HIV- patients, which indicates that immunodepression does not modify drastically genotype repartition of the parasite. There was no apparent association between given T. cruzi genotypes and specific clinical forms of Chagas' disease/HIV associations.