Leiomyosarcoma constitutes approximately 0.5% of the malignant neoplasias of the esophagus and its association with megaesophagus has not been described. We report on a case of a woman with dysphagia that was slowly progressive from the age of 19 due to chagasic megaesophagus. The woman was subjected to cardiomyotomy at the age of 49. She presented a rapid worsening of the dysphagia due to leiomyosarcoma at the age of 61, and was subjected to subtotal esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastroplasty. She developed pulmonary and hepatic metastases 14 months after surgery and died six months later.