Dengue is one of the most rapidly emerging diseases in the tropics. Humans are the principal reservoir of dengue viruses. It is unclear if nonhuman primates also serve as a reservoir of human dengue viruses under certain conditions. In this study, a cross-sectional serologic survey was carried out to characterize the pattern of transmission of a recently identified dengue virus among toque macaques in Sri Lanka. The results indicated that an epizootic dengue virus was active among the macaques. A single epizootic had taken place between October 1986 and February 1987 during which 94% of the macaques within the 3 km2 study site were exposed to the virus. The epizootic was highly focal in nature because macaques living 5 km from the study population were not exposed to the virus. The transmission of dengue viruses among macaques in the wild may have important public health implications.