Six different fractions from the venom of Vipera xanthina palestinae were separated out electrophoretically. Eluates of these fractions were tested in mice for lethal, hemorrhagic, neurotoxic and enzymatic activities.
About 80 per cent of the lethal activity of whole venom was concentrated in the A3 fraction which was dominantly hemorrhagic. Combined eluates of fractions K1–A1 and of A4–A5 were exclusively neurotoxic. Indirect hemolytic activity was strongest in fractions A4 and A5, while egg yolk-inhibitory activity was preponderant in fractions A2, A4 and A5.
Specific Vipera palestinae antiserum (Pasteur Institute) neutralized the hemorrhagic action of whole venom and of fraction A3 but it had very little activity against the neurotoxic components of the venom. The bearing of these findings on the pathogenesis of Vipera palestinae snake bite syndrome in human beings is obvious.