Purified rabbit immunoglobulin raised against yeast-expressed recombinant FVO or 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) 19k-D C terminal fragment (MSP-1(19)) was transfused into malaria-naive Aotus nancymai monkeys that were immediately challenged with FVO asexual stage malaria parasites. Control monkeys received rabbit immunoglobulin raised against the sexual stage antigen Pfs25 or Aotus hyperimmune serum obtained from monkeys immunized by P. falciparum infection and drug cure. Passive transfer of rabbit anti-MSP-1(19) failed to protect against homologous or heterologous challenge and, when compared with negative controls, there were no differences in prepatent periods or time to treatment. Interestingly, rabbit anti-MSP-1(19), but not anti-Pfs25, immunoglobulin, and immune monkey serum prevented the development of antibodies directed against MSP-1(19) fragment by infected monkeys, indicating that the antibodies were reactive with native MSP-1(19) antigen in vivo. The prepatent period and time to treatment was greatly delayed in the two monkeys that received Aotus immune serum, both of which developed a chronic intermittent low level infection. In vitro parasite growth inhibition assays (GIAs) confirmed the presence of inhibitory activity (40% maximum inhibition) in concentrated anti-MSP-1(19) immunoglobulin (4.8 mg/ml), but the peak concentrations we achieved in vivo (1 mg/ml) were not inhibitory in vitro. Subinhibitory levels of anti-MSP-1(19) antibodies achieved by passive transfer were not protective against P. falciparum challenge.