Macrophage scavenger receptor A (MSR-A) deficient mice MSR-A(-/-) were infected by the intraperitoneal injection of the Plasmodium berghei NK65 strain in the erythrocytic stage. The MSR-A(-/-) mice died significantly earlier than the control mice (P=0.060). In the surviving mice, two peaks of parasitemia were observed: the first 5-7 days and the second at 2-3 weeks after infection. Death of all MSR-A(-/-) mice occurred at either peak of parasitemia, suggesting that MSR-A protects mice from severe infection. This model may be useful for the study of molecular mechanisms of macrophage functions in malaria infection.