To elucidate the prevalence of GB virus C/hepatitis G virus (GBV-C/HGV) infection in Colombian native Indians, serum GBV-C/HGV RNA was assayed in 163 native Indians and 67 members of the general population in Colombia. The native Indians (males:females = 40:123) and the members of the general population (males:females = 20:47) were tested by reverse transcription-semi-nested polymerase chain reaction. Of the 163 native Indians, 10 (6.1%) were positive for GBV-C/HGV RNA, compared with one (1.5%) of 67 from the general population. All Indians were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody to hepatitis C virus. Of 10 Indians with GBV-C/HGV RNA, the genotype of nine subjects was the Asian type. These data indicated that 1) the prevalence of GBV-C/HGV RNA in Colombian native Indians is high, and 2) GBV-C/HGV was probably brought from Asia and inherited for generations in some native Indian groups.