This study enrolled 28 CNS-involved patients with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense at the Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Institute (Alupe, Kenya) to examine treatment efficacy and toxicity of melarsoprol in relation to renal excretion/dose relationships. This study complied with World Health Organization treatment recommendations, initially treating with suramin followed by three courses of melarsoprol. Traced study patients had a relapse rate of 4.1%. The toxicity and crude death rate was 7.1%. Total urine arsenic output was measured between 24 and 48 hr after the last dose for each course. The range of means of total urine arsenic output between the three treatment courses was 356–511 µg. There was no correlation comparing melarsoprol dose, estimated creatine clearance, or urine arsenic output. Urinary pharmacokinetic parameters are not predictive of toxicity or therapeutic efficacy.