To assess knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about bancroftian filariasis, 104 residents of an endemic area in Haiti were interviewed. Questions focused on 1) whether people understood the relationship between infection and disease, 2) recognition of the role that mosquitoes play in transmission, 3) perceived importance of hydrocele and elephantiasis in relation to other recognized diseases, and 4) the willingness of the community to participate in a control program. Fewer than 50% of residents had heard of filariasis and only 6% of those surveyed knew that it was transmitted by mosquitoes. In contrast, all persons knew of the clinical conditions of hydrocele and elephantiasis. Hydrocele was thought to be caused by trauma (60%) or trapped gas (30%); elephantiasis by walking bare foot on soil or water (37%) or by use of ceremonial powder that had been sprinkled on the ground (23%). Of 76 respondents, 53% and 38% thought that hydrocele could be treated through surgery or a drug, respectively, whereas of 86 respondents, 85% and 15% believed that either surgery or a drug could be used to treat elephantiasis. In this context, persons were not referring to a specific drug; rather, they believed a drug existed (possibly in some other country) that could cure these conditions. Hydrocele and elephantiasis ranked second to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as perceived health problems, most likely because residents believed treatment for conditions such as malaria, intestinal worms, anemia, and diarrhea was easily obtained. Responses were influenced by age, sex, and symptoms, but none of these effects were statistically significant except that persons with hydrocele or elephantiasis were more likely to have sought treatment than persons without these conditions (P = 0.0006). The survey results indicate that awareness of the causes of disease, the relationship between infection and disease, and goals of treatment must be heightened through community-based education campaigns to increase the possibility of acceptance and support of control programs.