New drugs for causal prophylaxis of malaria are needed. A proguanil/sulfamethoxazole combination was investigated using a rhesus monkey model (Macaca mulatta infected with Plasmodium cynomolgi) to determine whether causal prophylaxis could be achieved. When a five-day regimen of proguanil (40 mg/kg/day) combined with sulfamethoxazole (100 mg/kg/day) was used, infection of all animals (6 of 6) was observed, with an extended prepatent period (median 40 days). Two control animals became infected on days 9 and 23 following sporozoite inoculation. Plasma concentrations indicated that proguanil and sulfamethoxazole were adequately absorbed and metabolized to cycloguanil and N4-acetylsulfamethoxazole, respectively. Analysis of liver biopsy specimens demonstrated that the drugs were present two days following sporozoite inoculation but were not detectable one week later. Proguanil plus sulfamethoxazole does not eliminate exoerythrocytic-stage parasites in the rhesus monkey-P. cynomolgi model.