Liposomes, Muramyl Dipeptide Derivatives, and Nontoxic Lipid a Derivatives as Adjuvants for Human Malaria Vaccines

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  • Department of Tropical Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii

Studies indicate that adjuvant formulations based on liposomes, nontoxic lipid A, and muramyl peptide derivatives are safe and effective for vaccine use. Future research on the immunobiology of these adjuvants as well as the mechanisms by which adjuvants can alter the quality of immune responses may play an important role in determining their efficacy in malaria vaccines.

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