The incidence of intestinal parasites, with emphasis on the protozoa, in a small sample of the agricultural population of the Nile valley in Egypt was determined by study of stool specimens. A single specimen was taken on 6 separate surveys over a period of 2½ years. Figures for incidence of the protozoa and most of the helminths are unusually high. Entamoeba histolytica, E. coli and Endolimax nana occurred in 97, 98 and 93 per cent of specimens respectively. Enteromonas hominis, a protozoan frequently overlooked, was detected in 74 per cent. Fourteen per cent of the people had the small race of E. histolytica alone, whereas only 3 per cent were infected with the large race alone. Hookworm and Trichostrongylus eggs were found in 71 and 70 per cent respectively of specimens examined, Ascaris in 51 per cent and Enterobius vermicularis in 59 per cent. Such a high incidence of infection reflects the living conditions of the people from whom the material for examination was obtained.