Seven anopheline species from Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil were compared with Anopheles darlingi for susceptibility to infection by Plasmodium vivax. Laboratory-reared F1 progeny of field-collected An. darlingi and the test anopheline species were fed at the same time on the same patients, all of whom had gametocytes in peripheral blood before treatment. Mosquitoes were dissected on day 8 after infection for oocysts and on days 14–16 after infection for sporozoites. The mean numbers of P. vivax oocysts and the percent of salivary gland infections for An. darlingi and An. deaneorum were similar and far exceeded those found in the other anopheline species tested. Anopheles albitarsis and An. mediopunctatus were less susceptible to infection by oocyst measurements than An. darlingi. However, for oocyst-infected An. albitarsis and An. mediopunctatus, the percent of mosquitoes with salivary gland infections and the numbers of sporozoites in the salivary glands were similar to An. darlingi. Anopheles triannulatus and An. oswaldoi were both susceptible to P. vivax infection, but the sporozoite infection rates and the numbers of sporozoites observed in the salivary glands were very low. Anopheles braziliensis and An. benarrochi both developed oocysts, but were never observed to have sporozoites in the salivary glands. These studies implicate some anopheline species as potential malaria vectors, but also show that species previously incriminated by ELISA techniques are not vectors of malaria parasites in Costa Marques, Rondonia, Brazil.