We compared the performance of a newly developed Dot-ELISA with that of a previously described Sandwich-ELISA to detect parasite antigens in sera from patients with bancroftian filariasis. The same monoclonal antibody and the same sera were used in both tests. In the Dot-ELISA, 67 of 70 sera from microfilaremic donors were deemed to contain filarial antigens when screened at a dilution of 1:50. End titers were 1:80–1:1280. With the Sandwich-ELISA, 64 of the same sera were positive at a dilution of 1:10 and 42 were positive at a dilution of 1:50. End titers were 1:10–1:320. The specificity of both assays was >95%, but their sensitivity was remarkably different. The Dot-ELISA could detect as little as 0.055 ng/ml microfilarial antigen added to normal human sera, whereas the lower limit with the Sandwich-ELISA was 10 ng/ml parasite antigen. Additionally, the Dot-ELISA does not require radioactivity or sophisticated equipment and, therefore, can be performed in virtually all filariasis-endemic areas.